The Book of the Fair,
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Chapter the Seventeenth: Fisheries and Pisciculture
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[509] Far back to pilgrim days can be traced the origin of our domestic fisheries, for by them was saved from starvation the infant colony at Plymouth, and by their proceeds were supported the first public schools established on New England shores. Some two years before the Mayflower bore westward the fathers of the republic, a company of Puritans, returning from their sojourn in the Netherlands, besought King James for permission to found an American colony. "What profit might arise," inquired his majesty. "Fishing," was the answer, in a single world. "So God have my soul, �tis an honest trade: �twas the apostles� own calling." Such was the monarch�s decision, and so the permission was granted.

Except for despatching a ship in 1624 to establish a fishing station at Cape Ann, the Plymouth colony took no active part in the earlier development of American fisheries. This station they abandoned after a single season, and, as is related, their vessels, "well laden, went joyfully home together, ye master of ye larger ship towing ye lesser ship at his sterne, all ye way overbound." Meanwhile had been shipped from that point, in the previous year, the first cargo of fish for European markets. Thenceforth the industry grew apace, until, at the outbreak of the revolutionary war, there were more than 500 fishing craft belonging to Massachusetts ports alone, their total catch being valued at $750,000. Then came further troubles, followed by the war of 1812, and almost from that date until the settlement of the Bering sea controversy, progress has been retarded by foreign complications and injudicious legislation. Many a time has the remark been made that "our fishermen are always bringing trouble on the government." Rather should it be said that the government is ever bringing trouble on our fishermen. But notwithstanding all obstacles, the yield of fisheries has attained to mammoth proportions, and now for the first time in the annals of international expositions, this industry, with all its adjuncts, finds adequate representation in a home of its own.

In the Fisheries division of the Fair are included many branches, in addition to such as relate to the quest and capture of animals and plants whose home is in the water, entirely or in part. In the official classification are included fish and other forms of aquatic life; sea fishing and angling; fresh water fishing and angling; the products of the fisheries and their manipulation, and fish culture. In addition to the United States are represented nearly all nationalities among whom fishing is a prominent industry, from New Brunswick to New South Wales, the harvest of sea, river, and lake, "gathered," as has been said, "in wasteful fashion from a crop that is neither sown nor tended," amounting annually to more than 2,000,000 tons, and affording direct employment to at least 1,000,000 men and 200,000 vessels. In the United States the take of fish exceeds 250,000 tons a year, of which about one-fourth comes from the waters of the great lakes, with a large production from Atlantic and Pacific grounds, while the what and seal fisheries still produce largely, though with a steadily diminishing yield. As to the fisheries of other lands, brief mention will be made in connection with their exhibits in this department.

[511] - Facing in front an arm of the lagoon by which it is separated from the government building, and with one of its polygonal annexes bordered by a miniature estuary opening into the lake, the Fisheries pavilion raises its clear-cut outlines against the sky. In the fantastic design of this edifice, or rather group of edifices, we have somewhat of a relief from the architectural classicism of its environment. By his brethren of the craft, this composition, with its opulence of decorative features, conceived by Henry Ives Cobb, has been pronounced "an architectural poem." However this may be, it is certain that Mr. Cobb has given us a structure admirably suited to its several purposes, one that, in treatment, not only departs from the conventional style of its neighbors, but, as with the Horticultural hall, is of itself an illustration of the uses for which is was built.

In the main edifice, devoted to fisheries in general, to pisciculture and scientific investigation, we have a rectangular structure of no special order of architecture, though based on the southern Romanesque, in length 365 feet, with a width between the entrances of 242 feet, and between the outside walls of about two-thirds of the latter space. Through the centre runs a spacious hall, 280 by 80 feet, lighted by clear-story windows, and around which is a continuous aisle, occupying the remainder of the floor space. Above are galleries, also encircling the entire structure, and increasing its exhibiting space to a total of 60,000 square feet. To give accent to its low, long curtain walls, the roofs, of glazed Spanish tile, were so constructed as to slope sharply to a central ridge. Surmounting them is a circular tower, over the centre of the nave, in diameter co-equal with its width, and around which are turrets, with staircases leading to the gallery and to an exterior balcony. Above the tower is a clear-story stage, also flanked by turrets, and above all, rising to a height of 150 feet, is a conical roof, capped with a belvedere, around the base of which is still another gallery. At the principal entrances, in the centre of the main facades, are pavilions projecting from the outside walls, adorned with sculpture work and statuary typical of the fisherman�s craft. In the entire structure, with its double row of columns, their capitals depicting in endless group all forms of life contained in sea or river, we have rather a playful delicacy than such grandeur of design as some might deem in keeping with its proportions. In this and other points the Fisheries buildings differ essentially from most of their neighbors; but with a difference to which none but the most captious of critics will take exception.

In preparing his decorative scheme, the architect has produced some four-score models of columnar ornamentation, each of different and yet of conventional pattern. If in many of them there is found a strong element of the ludicrous and grotesque, it is only in keeping with the playfulness of design, and by no means detracts from the merits of composition. Rather does it serve, as one of his confreres remarks, "to make it [512] joyous and festive, without loss of dignity, grace, and fitness." Perhaps in none of the Exposition buildings have their artificers displayed a more striking originality of treatment, and that without treading on the dangerous ground of inventing new forms of architectural expression.

East of the principal edifice, in the direction of the lake, is the aquarium building, connected with it, as is the one devoted to angling exhibits, by a curved projecting corridor, so that the Fisheries hall appears to set back from its two flanking pavilions. The latter are of octagonal shape and somewhat similar design, the one containing the aquaria with clear-story windows and glass-roofed circular aisles in concentric arcs, surrounding and connected by arcades with a central rotunda, where, from the crevices of moss-covered rocks, rise jets of water in miniature fountains descending in spray to the basin below. Here is a choice collection of aquatic plants, and of goldfish and other ornamental specimens. In the salt and fresh-water aquaria, which are ten in number, are displayed nearly all the known varieties that people sea or river. As to the dimensions of these aquaria, it need only be said that their capacity ranges from 7,000 to 27,000 gallons, and with a total of 140,000 gallons, apart from reservoirs and water circulation.

Southward, the main facade of the Fisheries hall faces toward the Government building, in the northern end of which are the exhibits of the United States fish commission, thus grouping in one display all the wonders of the great deep, and including river fisheries, pisciculture, and other branches presently to be mentioned. While at several of our great world�s fairs there have been similar collections on a smaller scale, they have for the most part been scattered among other departments, and therefore wanting in unity and expression. Here, in accordance with the clause in the congressional act which provides for an exhibition of "the products of soil, mine, and sea," is for the first time afforded an ample and continuous illustration of aquatic industry and science. Nor is there any good reason why this industry, aptly termed the mother of commerce, and in many countries a prominent source of wealth, should not be fully represented at the Columbian Exposition. Still more appropriate would appear the emphasis given to this division, when it is remembered that fishing was one of the favorite pursuits of the native races of America, and that to their conquerors the pearl fisheries of the Isthmus were prizes coveted more eagerly than gold itself.

In the department of Fisheries is not only displayed in complete and interesting form their present condition, whether from a scientific or commercial point of view, but in a series of object lessons is portrayed their history for at least four centuries of the past. Almost side by side are the primitive apparatus of the savage, and the most approved appliances and methods evolved by many cycles of scientific progress. Here also are the laws and regulations, the reports and statistics, pertaining to fisheries. As to the fish themselves, there are few species that are not her represented, from the minnow to monsters of the deep, with river and shell fish of every kind, and with fish-eating birds, mounted on frames or preserved in alcohol. Of fish and fish stories described on canvas there is no lack, many of them depictured by artists of more than national repute.

[513] - In the angling department is a long array of rods, reels, tackle, and other appliances, showing the progress made in its various branches, and such as of itself forms a history of the pursuit which Walton ranked among the liberal arts. Of flies there are several exhibits, among the most interesting of which is the process of their manufacture by men and women actually at work on these delicate fabrics. Other kinds of artificial bait are also displayed in great variety; and near them is a collection of all such articles as pertain to the angler�s outfit, while on the banks of the lagoon, in close proximity, are fishermen�s camps, constructed of logs of canvas.

The centre of attraction is the exhibit of live fish in the aquarium building, where in tanks arranged in concentric circles is the largest collection of sea and fresh-water specimens in the world, except for the one contained in the Brighton aquaria on the southern coast of England. This was contributed by the United States fish commission, whose object was to present the best possible picture of fish-life, especially of the interior waters of America, and at the same time to illustrate the operations of the commission. While seeking to make it of educational value, everything has been done to show the different species in the most attractive form. That this is one of the most popular departments of the Exposition is attested by the crowds which daily inspect the many odd-looking specimens brought from ocean�s depths and inland streams. To young and old it has proved a delight, and is studied by thousands who have never been within sight of ocean, and to whom the stories of the great deep are as the marvels of tradition.

The first point of interest is the pool in the centre with its gold fish and other bright hued specimens. The groups of stalactites from which a supply of fresh water is constantly dripping into the basin are in tasteful design. Here also are numerous specimens of rock, marine vegetation, and mounds of aquatic and semi-aquatic plants. Between the central basin and the circles of tanks are passage-ways six feet in width, the tanks numbering 50 in all, of which about two-thirds contain the fresh-water species to the right of the southern portal. They vary in length from six to 50 feet, with a total glass frontage of nearly 600 feet, and with 3,000 square feet of surface. Their decorations resemble those where the gold-fish are domiciled, with miniature mountains and caves made of a lime-like substance, called calcareous tufa, from the springs near Toledo, Ohio, while vegetable matter grottoes and reefs, a dark cement has been used, and the holes and corners are filled with dark earth, in which aquatic plants are deposited.

In the fresh water sections are all the species inhabiting the great lakes, rivers, and their tributaries throughout the United States. Here are beautiful specimens of lake trout, brook trout, rainbow trout, carp, tench, pike, black bass, many kinds of suckers, cat-fish, dog-fish gars, and minnows. Of goldfish, the most attractive are the Chinese variety, with fan-like transparent tail, while the most handsome tank is that which contains the golden ide, of the carp family, indigenous to European rivers. In an aquarium 70 feet long by 12 in width are shown the largest specimens of the Mississippi basin and the great lakes, as the sturgeon, pickerel, cat-fish, white-fish, and bass. From inland waters are also the shovel-fish, lake herring, buffalo-fish, perch, and others. Then there are separate tanks for all fish indigenous to the Atlantic slope east of the Alleghany mountains. Here are in full splendor every species of edible and [514] commercial fish, with almost all the curious and hideous specimens in the waters of the United States, as well as a vast number of foreign species. There are the von behr from Germany, and the Lochleven trout from Scotland, as well as rainbow trout from California, black spotted trout from the Rocky mountains, and brook trout from every mountain stream in the republic. The different varieties of carp occupy a separate tank; and in this collection a most interesting fish to naturalists is the spoon-bill, or paddle-fish, the only species of the genus, and the only genus of the family polyodontidae in the world, and one that has never before been successfully preserved in an aquarium. In addition to aquatic plants, the fresh water tanks are well supplied with all kinds of water life, old logs being planted across the crevices, not only for the benefit of the fish, but to give to the surroundings a realistic appearance. The special design has been to make the environment in all cases correspond as far as possible with the habitat of the occupant, both as to fresh-water and marine exhibits.

The marine collection has been gathered from great distances, ranging from Atlantic to Pacific shores. Three classes are represented; food, ornamental, and monster fishes. Tongued cod, spotted croker, pompano, tautag, sheeps-head, toad fish, sea robins, sharks, skate, porgies, and mummichogs are among the specimens of every important species known to science. Divers have searched the ocean for the rare forms of plant life which adorn the tanks, growing as in their native beds. Resting placidly on rocks and sands are crabs, lobsters, turtles, sea anemones, terrapins, snakes, and other invertebrates. Elsewhere are shrimps, snails, whelks; and there is a collection of such varieties as the sea-horse, trunk-fish, and puff-fish, the last the most repulsive in all the marine aquaria, covered with sharp spikes similar to the porcupine-fish. A peculiar specimen is the so-called nursing fish, with a wavy appendage several feet in width.

The fresh water specimens are supplied with filtered water, kept at a temperature to suit their natural habits. The salt water is conducted in rubber tubes to a filter placed in the cellar and containing stones, gravel, and sand as in nature, and is then run off into a cistern with a capacity of about 60,000 gallons. A duplicate set of pumps operated by electric dynamos drives the water into a reservoir at the top of the building, whence it flows back into aquaria. The stream carries enough air with it to aerate the water and enable the fish to breathe. Another method of aerating is by aquatic plants, which are continually giving off oxygen, and absorbing the [515] carbonic gas generated by respiration. The fish are well fed, and thrive better than could be expected, crowded as they are in cruel fashion within the narrowest of space, in a collection that appears to be needlessly duplicated.

In the main Fisheries building we will begin with one of its smallest and yet most interesting exhibits. This is contained in a small glass case near the southern entrance, and consists of a collection of shells, fashioned by a Memphis contributor into pansies, bouquets, bracelets, and other fantastic forms. Thence extends along the main floor and the southern gallery, the largest display of nets, seines, and twines that has ever been brought together. This is by the American Net and Twine company of Boston, in the centre of whose enclosure is a pavilion containing an infinite variety of specimens. A portion of the enclosure is covered with a net of ample proportions, beneath which is a miniature pound net, resembling in pattern such as are used on the great lakes, and a large assortment of gill netting. Spanish cast netting, herring nets, trawls, and sundry other articles are suspended here and there with decorative effect, and there is a labyrinth of net-work comprising the English style of cat nets, models of weirs used in New England, salmon weirs, with fish traps of all description. The entire space is draped with cod hauling seines as used on the Newfoundland and Labrador coasts, and in the rear is an oil painting of a fisherman in the act of hauling in his net. There are also shown by this firm purse seines, and their method of operation, all styles of gill nets, traps, and nets used in the great lakes, models of floating traps, mackerel poaches, and in a word a complete collection of apparatus for the capture of nearly every kind of marine and fresh water fish.

Adjoining the net and twine display, is an exhibit of oyster pails, patent oyster rakes, and similar articles. Another firm has an exhibit of scaling, washing, and weighing machines, and among other contrivances one for shaping, stamping, and weighing fish balls. Near by a Boston lobster firm shows an exact reproduction of a well-smack used for transporting lobsters to market. Through a flat glass casing, made to resemble the surface of the ocean, can be seen the bottom of the boat resting on what appears to be the bed of the sea. The vessel is supplied with windlass, wheel, blocks, and all other appliances for receiving, storing, and transhipping its cargo to the cars, which are lying alongside ready to receive their freight. On the opposite side of the aisle is a collection of sturgeon sounds, described as the "air, or swimming bladder of the sturgeon, skinned and dried, with neither taste nor smell, and therefore the purest article for jellies and other culinary purposes."

In this vicinity is the exhibit of the Boston firm of John R. Neal and company, in which are models of fishing vessels, and a large collection of traps, implements, seines and smaller nets, with a section of a mackerel seine side by side with illustrations of mackerel catching. There is also a large array of pictures illustrating the deep-sea fisheries of New England, with everything that pertains to the catching and curing of haddock, and the capture of cod and mackerel, including the position of the nets in the water, back of which are bunches of sea-weed and other marine specimens. Large maps show the principal lighthouses [517] from Cape Ann to Cape Cod, and from the latter point to Newfoundland the fishing-banks are distinctly located. Colored photographs reproduce the experiences of a fishing trip, and in graphic art are delineated the privations and hardships of the fisherman. Schooners are depicted amid the wintry seas of the north Atlantic, or lying in port with spars and rigging covered with ice, and with frost-stiffened sails that cannot be lowered.

So also are portrayed other phases of this great New England industry, in which are directly employed some 50,000 men and nearly half that number of boats and larger vessels, the value of the catch being not far short of $20,000,000 a year. In Boston markets alone were landed in 1892 more than 35,000 tons of fresh fish, haddock forming the greater part of the supply, and next, in the order named, cod, hake, pollock, and halibut. There were also 35 cargoes of frozen herring, while from points between Cape Cod and Nova Scotia were forwarded by steamer and railroad 5,000 tons of bream, flounder, smelt, mackerel, shad, blue-fish, salmon, and other varieties. In the first two months of 1893 the fishing craft of Boston harbor made 1,300 trips with an average take of 15,000 pounds to the trip, this average falling far below the normal returns, for the winter was one of unusual severity.

In the southeastern part of the gallery the firm above mentioned has another collection of photographs, some of them representing famous craft among the fishing fleet, and in the centre of its enclosure, the front of which is draped with netting, is a fine specimen of photographic art, its theme representing the United States steamer Atlantic saluting the president. While only a private display, the exhibits of this firm present a vivid and faithful picture of New England and especially of Massachusetts fisheries in comprehensive and interesting form.

While as a state Massachusetts has no place in the Fisheries department, Gloucester, the harbor of Cape Ann and one of the largest centres of this industry in the United States, is worthily represented, as befits this ancient New England town. Founded in 1623, abandoned a year or two later, and permanently established in 1633, its colonists, inured from boyhood to hardship and privation, quickly overcame the disadvantages of their bleak environment. In the earlier portion of the following century it had taken the lead as a fishing port, building a fleet of vessels, among them the first schooner that ever sailed the seas, the story of which is thus related in Babson�s History of Gloucester. "Captain Andrew Johnson," he says, "had built in 1713 a vessel which he had masted and rigged in a peculiar manner, the same as the schooners of the present day. When launched, the peculiar skipping motion she made as she glided into the water from the stocks caused on of the bystanders to exclaim, �O how she scoons!� Robinson instantly replied, as he dashed a bottle of rum against her bows, �a scooner let her be.� Since that time the same class of vessels have been called schooners." In 1879, about which time the Cape Ann fisheries gave forth their maximum yield, there were about 900 vessels employed, with more than 5,000 men, the catch for that year amounting to 35,000 tons.

In the Gloucester section, adjoining the rotunda of the Fisheries building, is everything that pertains to the fisheries which she controls, from the colonial era to the year in which we live. A large portion of her space is occupied by a harbor scene, representing a fleet of fishing vessels built between 1775 and 1893, among them the Chebabaco, launched in 1775, the Handliner, in 1840, the Pinkey, in 1810, and two English craft whose history dates from 1623, while of those of modern build there are many famous specimens.

The section is arranged in the form of an octagon, each face of which, except the one in the water, is surrounded by an arch, and over the enclosure thus formed is a canopy of nets and seines. The object of the exhibit is to show the chief industries of Gloucester in pleasing and instructive form, and to illustrate her progress as a fishing port during nearly three centuries of growth. Here is represented in miniature the primitive wharf of colonial days, with the old-time flake or platform, fashioned of sticks and supported by stanchions, on which [518] the cod were dried. Near by is the modern wharf, where the men are at work spreading the fish and packing them for market. All the most recent methods for handling fish are shown in contrast with those of the past. At the head of the wharf, or near it, are spacious fish, smoke, and salt houses; and by way of contrast as to methods of cleaning vessels is an ancient craft, carefully scrubbed and painted, near to a handsome George�s bank schooner mounted on a ship railway, the scrubbing and painting performed by modern processes.

But the most striking feature is a mast-head 40 feet high, the top-mast rising from the side of the section next the dome, and on the cross-tree a fisherman scanning the waters for a shoal of mackerel. In front of the arch facing the central fountain is the inscription "Gloucester, Mass., U. S." and on the capitals of the pillars which support it, the figures 1623 and 1893. On these pillars are statistics as to the cost, trips, catch, casualties, and other incidents relating to the fishing fleets, showing the amount of ice used, and fish and fish products distributed. In large photographs are depicted fishing scenes, the more pleasing phases in the lives of fishermen�s families, and the buildings and environment of Gloucester.

In the background of the exhibit are pyramids of boxes, barrels, and kits; canned fish in many forms, with fish in blocks, bricks, and tablets; smoking herring, mackerel, and pickled herring. There are also numerous devices for storing fish, with lines, nets, seines, trawls, buoys, and signals. Then comes a large assortment of fishermen�s clothes, with tarpaulins, rowlocks, anchors of various sizes, patent windlasses, ice-crushers, fish-hooks, fish-knives, and, in a word, everything that pertains to fishing craft. An old American flag, with 27 stars, used on a fishing vessel threescore years ago, a large assortment of shells, sea-weeds, and curiosities gathered from ocean�s depths complete this interesting collection.

A Gloucester firm has an exhibit adjoining the one described, including a large assortment of the products of its establishment, as glue preparations in barrels, cans, boxes, and jars, with papers, tags, and envelopes, so arranged as to demonstrate the adhesive qualities of fish glue. Elsewhere in its section leather is glued together, and pieces of wood are fastened to iron. There is also a display of fish mucilage, of guano made from salt fish, and of bone waste and ground fish-bones for fertilizing purposes.

Fronting on the central nave in the southeastern section of the building is another exhibit by a Gloucester firm, consisting of fish glues and articles made therefrom. In the centre of its court is a pyramid of liquid glue in jars, bottles, and cases. In show-cases containing hats and shoes are indicated some of the uses to which this material can be put, and in one of the corners a large bell weighing over a ton is suspended in mid-air as a test of its tenacity. There are also wagon axles with the steel and iron joined by glue instead of by nails or bolts, and a large cannon is so suspended as to illustrate its adhesive qualities when applied to wood and leather. In a collection of fish skins are shown the special grades from which the glue is extracted.

In the northern gallery is an interesting collection from the whaling port of New Bedford, which, through its board of trade, sent to the World�s Fair many curious specimens connected with that pursuit, from the apparatus used for capture to the process of oil refining. Here are shown among other articles, the old toggle iron, [519] Pierce bom-gun, lance-gun, English gun harpoon, blubber gaff, hooks, ladles, and knives, with samples of whale oil and soap. On the walls are displayed in graphic art the perils of a whaler�s life, and the whaling vessels and wharves of New Bedford, the former of old-time and modern architecture, including the Progress, now lying off the convent of La Rabida. There are also models of whaling vessels and the signals used at sea, groups of sperm-whale jaws, a large walrus head, an assortment of whalebone, and specimens of Arctic animals. To demonstrate the process of rendering oil, there are placed in the centre of one of the sections a large blubber tank, oil coolers, and a try kettle, as used on the deck of a whaler. Over the front of this court hangs an immense blubber hook, grasping a pair of whale jaws, and hanging from the gallery, suspended over the main floor, is a whaling boat completely equipped.

Maine has a small exhibit adjacent to the rotunda, the principal purpose of which is to represent her marine and fresh water species. On the walls are mackerel, chub, haddock, striped bass, sand-shark, codfish, herring, lobster, and other varieties, including such rare specimens as the tautog and lump-sucker. In the centre of the group is a handsome painting of a salmon, and a collection of shells from the sea coast graces the front portion of the enclosure, while to the right is an aerating pump, the invention of one of the state commissioners. Adjoining this section is a display of canned goods by a Portland firm, consisting of clams, lobsters, and other shell-fish in tins and bottles grouped in pyramidal form.

The state collection of Rhode Island occupies a liberal space in the Fisheries building, appearing to excellent advantage in the southern half of the central nave. Of the oysters taken from New England beds, valued at about $1,500,000 a year, a large proportion comes from that state, and another source of wealth is her manhaden fisheries, a species of the herring genus. Both industries are fully illustrated, everything that relates to the quest, capture, and preparation of fish for market being here displayed in models and graphic art. Among the former is one of the fishing steamer George W. Humphrey, showing remarkable fidelity of detail and nicety of workmanship. Every particle of the vessel�s equipment is reproduced, even to the rope which lowers the net, while down in the hold, carefully rolled away in tiny boats, are the finely knitted seines. From the mast is displayed the name of the steamer on a miniature flag, and near by is a model of the Seven Brothers on a less elaborate scale. Other models are those of a strike-boat and a catboat rigged and equipped for service in the scallop trade. In photographic form are represented many phases of the Rhode Island fisheries. In some of them are men setting, pursing, and gathering in the seines; in others are steamers towing heavy working boats, and there are sunset scenes on the water, with lighthouses in the distance, from paintings by eminent artists. Here also are shown the dwellings of the more prosperous fishermen of Tiverton, and in large, handsome paintings are grouped the choicest of specimens from stream and ocean. Fronting on the nave is a famous boat, the story of which is told in the following inscription: "Presented to Ida Lewis, the heroine of Newport, Rhode Island, for her daring and successful efforts in saving human life in Newport harbor."

In a large case is shown an improved scup-trap and a model of a purse-seine, for capturing minnows, the former a remarkable contrivance. In consists in part of a long leader, with poles and netting, the fish coming alongside and around the leader, and finally landing in an enclosure called the kitchen. Should [520] they swim ahead, the netting of another compartment is encountered, to which there is access through a square hole in the centre of the wall of netting which bulges in toward the kitchen. A large portion of the fish enter through the hole, thus reaching what is termed the parlor, and are thence transferred to the boat. To interpret the meaning of this device, small models of fish in metal are arranged in shoals, some having the appearance of swimming outside the leader, and others following them into the meshes of the trap. Near by is a miniature semblance of an old-fashioned trap, such as was in use half a century ago. Of hooks, rods, reels, nets, and tackle there is a large and varied exhibit, with a complete collection of oyster dredges, old and new, baskets, pots, rakes, measures, shovels, and other apparatus, showing how these fish are caught and handled. Tools for handling clams, spears for capturing lobsters, eel lanterns, sorting-boards, and luring nets are also among the minor features of the display.

The state of New York is not represented in the Fisheries building, but the space assigned to her, east of Maine�s collection is occupied by several of her metropolitan firms. The most elaborate display is that of Max Ams, in which are demonstrated the most improved methods of preparing and packing fish for market. In the centre of the court is a rowboat filled with mounted sturgeon from the Delaware river, to the right of which is a large assortment of caviare, Russian sardines, anchovies, and other fish, in cans and barrels. One side of the enclosure is banked with a variety of canned goods; another group consists of pickled lobsters, herrings, shrimps, American caviare, sturgeon oil, isinglass, and sturgeon fertilizers. In rear of this section is a pyramid of potted and bottled fish goods ready for exportation, and on one of the partition walls are depictured the fishing grounds of Bayside, New Jersey.

Adjoining this section are the exhibits of other New York firms, whose individual collections include sardines and Columbia river salmon in cans, and glues from the skins of cod and cusk, with apparatus for testing glues and a device for determining the adhesive quality of fish cement, the latter a recent invention. Other firms have a joint display of caviare, Russian sardine jam, Berliner roll herring, spiced sea-trout, and a large variety of other saltwater fish in cans, kegs, and jars ready for market. There is also a special exhibit of barreled, boxed, and canned mackerel, and around this enclosure are views of sardine canning factories, showing the process of cleaning, salting, packing, and the manufacture of cans and other articles.

To North Carolina a large and prominent section was awarded in the northern division of the Fisheries building; and here is a display well worthy of a state which in this as in other industries ranks among the foremost of the southern sisterhood. In her river and sea fisheries several thousand men are employed, and several hundred vessels, the yield of the former averaging from 12,000 to 15,000 tons a year, and of the latter, including oysters, more than half as much. Since the depletion of the Chesapeake oyster grounds, the North Carolina beds have gone far to supply the deficiency; the public interests are here carefully guarded, a commissioner, appointed for the purpose, frequently visiting the beds and capturing or driving away intruders, while armed patrolmen are constantly on the alert. In flavor, size, and shape, the oysters differ widely, a favorite species coming from the New river grounds, though others are largely in demand, and as is claimed are not inferior in quality.

[521] - From grounds that cover many millions of acres, North Carolina sends numerous specimens of oysters and oyster shells, the latter freely distributed along the flooring of her court. From North river and Harper�s ferry are collections of planted oysters, and from Beaufort one of little-neck clams. Here also is shown the diamond-backed terrapin, a delicacy much in demand, and of such value as to be artificially cultivated and protected by legislation. In the centre is a rush camp, such as serve for the homes of fishermen, shaded by palmettos as samples of forest growth. In photographs is reproduced a wide range of southern scenery, and there are many illustrations of the various phases of a fisherman�s career.

One of the choicest collections of mounted fish and aquatic fowl in the Fisheries building is contained in cases at the eastern end of the court. This includes numerous specimens of the canvas-back duck from the famous duck regions of Carrituck sound, with the heron, bittern, Canadian goose, and a cluster of grouse. The animal list is larger, comprising squirrels, minks, musk-rats, skunks, beavers, and large bull-frogs. In one of the cases are migratory fish, and in another fish of great economic value, as the herring, roe, and shad, with the gar, red-drum, manhaden, and other specimens prized for their fertilizing properties, while views of the guano factories show the process of its manufacture.

Among samples of food fish are the Spanish mackerel, pompano, black-bass, and mullet, with caviare prepared from the roe of the sturgeon for foreign export, and the fish of which isinglass is made. At the northern entrance are the jaws of the shark, and near the main portal is the head of a large spear-fish from the state museum, near which are harpoons for the capture of whales. Elsewhere are clam rakes and tongs, boat anchors and hooks, sound pulleys, and nets of many descriptions, with an Albermarle seine 2,500 yards in length, here reproduced in miniature. On charts are outlined the principal fishing and oyster grounds, with statistics as to the various branches of North Carolina fisheries.

Among the special exhibits in the Fisheries department may be mentioned a Louisiana alligator, twelve feet long, and the largest of two sent alive to the Fair as a contribution from that state. The change of temperature proved fatal to both, and the one on view was stuffed and mounted for exhibition on account of its enormous size.

Illinois is mainly represented by a Chicago packing firm, whose space, adjoining the northern portal, is indicated by a series of pillars, supported by oars, above which is a drapery of flags and net-work. Life-buoys extend along the entire front, and over the entrance is the head of a deer, decorated with bunting. Within is a large pyramid of canned oysters, with pillars of canned goods at the corners rising to the ceiling, and a base of oyster shells. Elsewhere are shrimps, salmon, and oysters in cans, shells from the Azores, finger-sponges, star-fish, sea corn, and egg cases of the sea-whelk or winkle. To illustrate the effect on wood of the toredo, or boring worm, an old tackle block is shown perforated with holes.

In this collection is a lobster weighing more than twenty-three pounds, the largest thus far recorded. A model of a dory shows the type of vessel used for lobster capture along the New England coast, other models representing a crate for holding lobsters while boiling, a modern lobster trap, and a floating car for keeping the fish alive while on their way to market. The different modes of shipping bulk oysters are demonstrated in a collection of cans, barrels, and pails of recent pattern, and there are photographs and paintings of scenes among the canneries, with fishing-boats and a [523] large wharf at Astoria, Oregon. By way of decoration are the heads of buffalo, elk, and a reindeer on the further side of the court; in one of the corners is a small white baby seal. In the northern aisle of the gallery is another group of canned goods, including anchovies, lobsters, herring, and salmon.

Minnesota�s state exhibit, in the northeast corner of the building, consists of mounted specimens of fish and fish-eating birds, with maps, drawings, and photographs, showing the distribution and development of species, and matters pertaining to inland fisheries. The principal specimens are of the wall-eyed pike, red-horse sucker, big-mouth sunfish, black buffalo, yellow perch, silver cat-fish, and spoon-billed sturgeon, while among birds are the cormorant, blue heron, black-tailed gadwit, bittern, upland plover, willow ptarmigan, and many varieties of grouse and ducks, the latter including the black mallard and great northern diver.

Around the cases containing these specimens are reproduced in photographic form the fish streams of Minnesota, the camp life of fishermen in early days, and phases of Indian life and habits. The state hatchery at Willowbrook, and the hatchery of the United States fish commission at Duluth, are given due prominence, as also are the commissioners. In the piscicultural department are drawings illustrating the various stages in the development of pike and perch. Above the collection of birds and fish is a large canoe, in which are seated two life-sized Indians, one guiding the boat and the other in the act of spearing a fish.

Fronting on the central transverse nave is California�s small but choice display, consisting mainly of colored casts of her various food fishes. Among them are specimens of the king-salmon, orange rock-fish, white sea-bass, Sacramento pike, starry flounder, grass rock-fish, the scombridea, with such rare and peculiar species as the cabrilla, speckled scorpine, Spanish flag, and others; and as representing the entire coast, the jew-fish, pesca, vermiglia, stripped bass, and a large mounted sturgeon. The members of these groups differ widely in size, shape, and color, giving to the entire collection a unique and novel appearance.

At the eastern end of the main building is the exhibit of the high school of San Diego county, California, in whose show-cases is a carefully selected assortment of star-fish, corals, sea-moss, pearl and other shells, with many beautiful articles made therefrom. Near these are groups of crabs, horned toads, abalones, sharks� jaws, sharks� eggs, and the ear-drum of a whale. In another division, extending the entire length of the space, is a great variety of fish-eating birds, as the curlew, butter-ball, American white pelican, and road runner. There is also a large collection of San Diego fish, both mounted and dried, including the salmon, white-fish, rock-cod, croaker, black-perch, and blue-fish. The leopard shark and devil fish are here on exposition, and there are many fancy articles skillfully fashioned of scales, shells, and sea-weed, with other rare articles scattered so liberally throughout the exhibit as almost to give to it the appearance of ocean�s bed. A large picture of San Diego and the surrounding country, showing Coronado beach, National city, the table lands of Mexico, and the snow-capped mountains of Cuyamaca, [524] serves as a background covering the surface of the partition wall.

Oregon�s display consists mainly of canned salmon, in the form of pyramids, the joint exhibit of the leading packing houses of Astoria. A model of a salmon boat, fully equipped, and a patent scoop, or salmon wheel, show the method of capturing salmon on the Columbia river. Finely preserved specimens of salmon are here, as also are clams, red trout, porgies, and blue-back bass. A case of pheasants and a picture of Mount Hood in the background form pleasing additions to the display. There is also a picture showing an Astoria fishing fleet returning from the grounds with a heavy catch near to which is a fur-seal, weighing over 1,200 pounds. To Oregon was assigned an additional section in the east gallery, where was placed an assortment of canned salmon and fish packed in various forms.

Above Washington�s enclosure, adjacent to Oregon, was suspended the skeleton of a whale, its jaws forming an archway at the entrance of the court. The exhibit consists largely of canned goods, including salmon, sturgeon, crabs, and lobsters. Of fish destroying birds, the eagle, whistling swan, and North American bittern are the largest and most voracious specimens. In well preserved specimens are also the wolf-fish, salmon, dolly-varden fish, trout, squid, and other river and ocean species. Oysters, native and acclimatized, mussels, clams, of the short-neck, razor-back, and mammoth varieties are well represented. There are likewise shrimps, cockles, and a large collection of mounted fish, as white sturgeon, star-fish, chinook, blue-perch, flounder, rock-cod, white-perch, sculpin, and salmon in every form.

In the centre of the court are models of fishing-boats, including one with its outfit occupied by the Makah and other Indians who captured the Exposition whale, together with the relics and fishing implements of various Indian tribes. A mixed collection includes shells, barnacles, sea-weeds, and other ocean products, with harpoons and various implements made of bones and skins, while poised erect at the rear of the enclosure, with a fish in its mouth, is a large sea-lion from the Columbia river, whose scenery and fishing industries are reproduced in photographic form.

Salmon taken from the Columbia river form the mainstay of the Oregon and Washington fisheries, and were introduced into foreign markets long before canneries were established by American citizens. From about 21,000 cases in 1869, the pack increased to 629,000 cases in 1883, when the maximum yield was reached, the catch thenceforth diminishing with the rapid depletion of the fisheries. Meanwhile the export trade, beginning with 30,000 cases in 1871, rose to 479,000 cases in 1876, realizing more than $2,500,000. Of Alaska, though not represented at the Fair, it may here be stated that her canneries bid fair to rival those of the Columbia, their output showing a steady gain, and gradually finding favor among eastern and European communities.

Among foreign exhibitors Norway occupies a large and prominent section on the northwestern floor of the [525] Fisheries building, where is well represented an industry in which one-fifth of the population is directly employed or interested, one that yields a large portion of the food supply, and with a considerable surplus for export. Here sea-fishing is conducted almost entirely off the coast, and in open boats, owned for the most part by the fishermen themselves. At the Lofoden grounds, in the far northwest, the largest of Norwegian fisheries, 30,000 men assemble, with 7,000 or 8,000 boats, and of their cabins, built among a group of islands within the Arctic circle, a specimen in Norway�s court serves as the office of this department. Though here, as elsewhere, storms prevail for about one-half of the season, the catch in fine weather is phenomenal, the take of cod being estimated at 56,000,000 a year. Herring and mackerel, of which there are several species, are next in economic value, and among others the salmon, whale, and seal fisheries swell the total exportation of fish and fish products to $12,000,000 a year.

In front of the Norwegian court is a series of pillars, adorned with flags, and between them a drapery of netting, with net-buoys and other objects of interest. At the entrance is an arch formed of boat-oars tastefully decorated, with the word "Norway" conspicuously displayed, and above it the crown of Norway resting upon the royal coat of arms. The court is in two sections, divided by the northern aisle, each section being in several compartments. To the left of the entrance is the fisherman�s cabin referred to, a red colored structure, with small windows and a cosy fireplace. The exhibits cover the entire fisheries of Norway, and especially to deep-water fishermen, are of surpassing interest. Everything relating thereto is arranged in artistic forms, both as to fish, appliances used for their capture, and all the various used to which the product is applied. In the foreground is an historical collection of models of fishing craft, beginning with the staunch, unwieldy boats used by Norsemen many centuries before the Columbian era. All are of full size, completely equipped, and show every known device for catching fish. Among the models of modern craft are whaling, cod, and herring boats, manned and with every kind of apparatus used in localities ranging from the whale and seal fisheries of the north to the mackerel grounds of the southern peninsula. There is also a model of a whaling steamer, on the upper deck of which is a miniature cannon, with bomb-harpoon and a complete equipment for catching the bottle-nose whale. Here also is a model of an improved fog-horn, differing from all other in that the air is pumped into one side of a square box, from which on becoming surcharged it escapes through a horn on the other side, with a sound that can be heard for a distance of several miles.

Along the wall of this section are plaster casts of Norwegian fishes, including the hake, ling, flounder, lemon-sole, herring, shad, plaice, turbot, whiting, mackerel, polar red-fish, lump-sucker, eel, gray gurnard, and many other varieties. In boxes, cans, and kegs is an assortment of fish in marketable forms, and on the centre of the wall is a large oil painting, the theme of which is a gale off the northwest coast of Norway.

In another section, separated by a long row of pillars reaching from ground floor to gallery ceiling, is a valuable collection of specimen products of Norway fisheries, displaying in separate jars, first the fish, then the oil, scrap, and bones, the two last also in the form of fertilizers. [526] Meal made of fish is among the collection, and around the pillars are piles of bloaters, mackerel, herring, anchovies, cod, and so forth. In tiers, one above another, rising to the roof, are samples of dried and pickled fish, and dried backbones of cod; and in other groups are barreled and canned fish, and the salted roe of the cod and mackerel. In addition to the products of the whale and seal, are isinglass, oils for medicinal purposes, boiled cod, preserved fish, meat, and game, and potted omelets and roes. A fine display of cod liver oil comes from Lofoden and other fishing centres. The Modums fishing association displays its piscicultural apparatus, and a large collection of skin and oil clothing shows how fishermen dress in various localities along the coast. An instructive exhibit is from the Exposition committee at Bergen, with various well developed specimens contained in bottles, by the side of which are the results of a careful analysis, showing among other items the percentage of potash, water, and lime contained therein. The same association shows the salted skin of a Greenland whale, a tanned wolf�s skin, seal skins dressed with alum, and a reindeer�s skin with head and horns attached.

North of the aisle which divides the court the remainder of the exhibits are arranged in convenient groups along the walls, the canned goods including stock-fish, preserved shredded fish, and preparations of jellies and sauces, with monster cases from every noted fish mart in Norway. In other subdivision, enclosed by screens and railings, are the exhibits of the Bergen committee, which has still another collection of fish products, in more than fifty varieties, with improved fishing implements, anglers� outfits, nets for catching every kind of fish on the coast, buoys and beacons, gaffs, sinkers, seines, weirs, lobster and eel traps. There is also a patent winch, a contrivance for hauling in cod and herring nets, and one that can be used for hoisting sails and masts. In another case is a large variety of lines, and near by a whale harpoon, with cannon and shells. A third group consists of artificial bait; and there is an interesting collection of hooks, dating from the year 1797.

The exhibit of aquatic birds by the Bergen committee includes the eider duck, of which there are many specimens, the yellow-legged gull, the diver, cormorant, guillemot, and ouzel, while the effect is greatly enhanced by beautiful quilts made of eider down. A large polar bear, in the act of catching a seal, forms the central figure of the section. Photographs and sketches, giving a panoramic view of the coast, show the various fisheries and harbors, and Norwegian game fish are freely illustrated. On statistical charts are represented in colored circles the amount and value of the catch at each station from 1866 to 1890, with other data relating [527] to the fisheries. Here also a private firm has samples of cod-livers in various stages of growth, and near it are various grades of cod-liver oil, with models of refining apparatus and a cod-fishing boat, and photographs illustrating these industries.

By the Bergen committee is also displayed a collection of shells, sea-weeds sponges, corals, and marine curiosities. Models of fish curing and canning establishments, show the processes of drying, salting, smoking, trimming, and cooking, while appliances for preserving fish during transportation are also reproduced in models. By the fishery association of Modums is exhibited a model of a fish-hatching apparatus, with vessels for catching the roe and fry in different stages of development, and breeding and rearing establishments for oysters and other shell-fish. Arund the walls are pen and ink drawings of fishing scenes in northern waters, and a large painting of Arctic scenery, with icebergs, and a party of hunters on ice-floes in the act of spearing seals.

[528] - In the gallery, the first two sections on the north side are occupied by an exhibit of Norwegian seines, nets, lines, and a large assortment of dried fish. The sections along the west end contain numerous implements for fishing, and appliances for handling and transporting fish to market, with floats, buoys, sinkers, and other apparatus. The entire enclosure is draped with netting, copiously decorated with flags and emblems, and across the entrance is the national coat of arms.

Great Britain has a small but choice display adjoining the western entrance of the Fisheries building. To the right of the enclosure is a Scotch exhibit of salmon flies in a handsome gilt case, and another Scotchman illustrates in diagram form the method of electric communication with fishing fleets at sea. The latter shows first the electric signal cabin ashore, and then the submarine cable, extending from shore to within a convenient distance of the fishing grounds, where it is moored to a terminal buoy. There are also beacon buoys, carrying metal flags to indicate the course, and at both ends are electric bells. A novel feature is that the cable can be picked up by means of a grappling hook, and messages sent ashore from any point. Near by are plans and diagrams of ice houses, models of railway cars for conveying fish to market, and of the boxes in which they are packed. Another series of diagrams show a fisherman�s portable bothy, adapted to the herring grounds on the coast of Scotland. The structure is built of undressed wood, and rests on a mound of rock; its roof is of corrugated iron, and its floor of earth, ventilation being from above. Other designs by the same exhibitor are in the form of permanent dwellings for fishermen.

From a prominent fish-curing establishment of Scotland is an exhibit of finnan haddies, sun-dried cod, saith and ling, cured fish and barreled herrings, the last also displayed by a Glasgow firm. A London house has a large collection of India rubber goods, as waders, fishing trousers, boots, overalls, and various articles pertaining to the outfit of sporting fishermen. London has also an elaborate assortment of hooks, from those which catch the shark to such as are used for the capture of minnows; together with an assortment of flies, needles, prongs, and lines. Decoys, as worms, toads, reptiles, and butterflies are arranged in various forms, and a number of gold medals show the exhibitor�s standing at previous expositions. Still another English firm has a collection of hooks for both sea and river use, and adapted to the fisheries of every land.

Occupying nearly one third of the British space is a model of the Baltimore fishery school, in the county of Cork, Ireland, the special contribution of Baroness Burdett-Coutts, who was one of the founders of the [529] school, and formally opened it in 1887. Here is shown how the pupils taught all the arts relating to fishing and fish curing, with their dormitories, classrooms, and net-making and mounting rooms. The special object is to explain what is being done to revive the fishing industry in a district where it had become almost extinct. The model is twenty feet square, and stands for Ireland�s part in the fisheries exhibit of Great Britain.

While not wanting in attractive features, the British display affords no adequate representation of an industry in which England far outstrips all other countries in the world. From the fishing ports of the United Kingdom more than 400,000 tons of fish a year are conveyed inland by rail, and including shell-fish the value of the annual catch is not far short of $40,000,000. Yet even this enormous yield does not suffice for home consumption, imports of fish amounting to nearly $15,000,000 a year, against $8,000,000 or $10,000,000 of exports. The number of men employed is almost as large as the standing army of Great Britain, probably exceeding 125,000, with 30,000 registered boats, the Scotch contributing the larger proportion; for the fisheries of Scotland produce almost as abundantly as those of England, though with a smaller relative value.

No less remarkable is the yield of Canadian fisheries, estimated for 1892 at $20,000,000, or one half of the British production, though the population of the kingdom is more than seven-fold that of the dominion. Cod ranks first in commercial value, with a take for that season worth $4,000,000, and next are salmon, worth $2,500,000; herring and lobsters, each $2,000,000, and mackerel, $1,500,000. In these and other fisheries are employed about 65,000 men, with more than 30,000 boats and 1,200 larger craft, while of nets and seines there are several million fathoms.

The fisheries of Canada are among the richest and most extensive in the world, reaching, on the Atlantic coast, from the strait of Belle Isle to the bay of Fundy, and together with British Columbian shores affording 12,000 miles of ocean seaboard. Add to this the inland waters of teh great lakes, of Manitoba and the Northwest territories, with rivers and streams abounding in fish in many portions of the dominion, and we have a source of wealth, as yet but partially developed, second only to her agricultural resources. Herring, mackerel, and smelt are captured in immense quantities along the seaboard of the maritime provinces; British Columbia yields, in addition to other varieties, 2,500,000 a year of salmon, and the inland waters of the dominion team with white-fish, trout, sturgeon, bass, and pickerel, the take of the first along exceeding 23,000,000 pounds. Oysters are found in abundance in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island, and the lobster canning industry, beginning in 1869 with a production worth $15,000, had increased by 1881 to its maximum value of $3,000,000, with more than 600 canneries still in operation. Protected by laws that are rigidly enforced with the aid of armed cruisers and a large force of officials, the Canadian fisheries are in no danger of depletion, while in the several provinces thirteen hatcheries increase the natural reproduction, 140,000,000 fry, mainly of salmon, salmon-trout, white-fish, and lobsters being planted in the single year of 1892.

A large trophy in the southwestern section of the Fisheries building marks the starting point of Canada�s exhibit, where around a lofty octagonal pagoda are arranged in tiers the various products of ocean, river, and lake. Seines of all sizes and of finished workmanship are abundantly displayed, and above all is the figure of a tall Canadian fisherman. The groups are classed in five divisions, one for each of the provinces, occupying a total space of 7,000 square feet, and forming as a collective exhibit one of the strongest features in the department.

[531] - The greater part of the Canadian display is from the Marine and Fisheries department at Ottawa, whence the dominion government has forwarded many valuable specimens, including mounted fish and fish-destroying birds and beasts; salted, smoked, and frozen fish; seal, whale, and other fish oils; algae, sponges, and crustacea; hooks, seines, nets, and fishing gear of all descriptions. In the front section is one of the birch bark canoes of the Micmac Indians, of New Brunswick, and near by are the canoe and dug-out of the British Columbian Indian, in contrast with which is a fishing boat from Nova Scotia, with models of other sail and steam boats. The Hockins fish-way and a lighthouse, with nine large reflectors, recently constructed near Montreal, are also shown in models. The former is unlike anything of the kind on exposition, and is best described in the words of the official in charge of Canada�s exhibit. "It resembles," he says, "a hole in the bottom of a dam, with the velocity of the discharge so reduced that a fish may go against the current and swim into the pond above. It consists of a series of apartments having approximately a level floor, with side walls and transverse partitions every four feet of its length, from the bottom of the day to above the water line. These apartments are connected with one another and with the pond above and the river below the dam. The water in the several apartments will be lower step by step from inflow to outlet, and flows out of the last aperture under the head of about two feet. Fish can easily make their way from the first apartment to those above, and it is so built up from the bottom of the pond that the ice cannot form under it." In photographs are illustrated fishing episodes along the Fraser river, Indian modes of fishing, and the scenic wonders of Vancouver island.

In an adjacent court are cans of Fraser river salmon, with photographs of New Brunswick scenery, and of fish hatcheries at Quebec and Halifax, a separate group showing the famous Ontario hatchery, with its museum and underground chamber. Fishing craft of many types are reproduced in models, as also are the vessels used for protective purposes, and a steamer forging its way through the ice of subarctic seas. There are specimens of the larger fish for which Canada is famous, among them a halibut weighing 300 pounds, a Greenland shark, and monsters of the deep from the gulf of St. Lawrence, including the rare white whale, a ton or more in weight. In one of the cases are the sharp-nosed sturgeon, wolf-fish, and a pair of baby seals; and among the finest specimens of mounted fish are the quinat salmon from British Columbia and the Atlantic salmon from Nova Scotian waters, near which are otter, mink, and an Ontario beaver. In mounted samples the dominion is especially strong, including the yellow perch, salmon-trout, and many varieties of lake suckers from Ontario; sturgeon, salmon, and bass from Quebec; shad and sunfish from New [532] Brunswick; cod from Nova Scotia; buffalo-fish from Winnipeg, and ling, rock trout, green cod, and others from British Columbia. Inland waters are also represented, as by the cod of the St. Lawrence, the sheepshead of the Detroit, the cat-fish of the Red river, and the salmon, trout, and white-fish of the great lakes.

In other cases is a choice collection of preserved specimens from every quarter of the dominion. Nets, lines, and traps are freely displayed; there are assortments of whalebone, of sturgeons� sounds, and of lobsters from British Columbia, whose sealing fleets are shown in photographs, and among curiosities are an old sealing musket and the tusk of a narwahl from the Hudson Bay region. An attractive feature is the collection of shells, contributed from all the provinces. From the marquis of Lorne comes an assortment of barnacles gathered from the neighborhood of Victoria, and a Montreal exhibitor has a display of river crustacea. Among the specimens preserved in alcohol are squid, starry roe, horse-mussels, sculpin, and lobsters more than two feet long; while of fish in commercial forms there are herring, cod, and salmon in cans and barrels.

Fishing craft and their models are also among the attractions of the Canadian courts. In the front section there are, in addition to those already mentioned, models of the government vessels which protect the cod banks of Newfoundland, and of such as are engaged in those fisheries. By a Nova Scotian firm is shown the counterpart of a Newfoundland fishing schooner displayed in London at the fisheries exhibition of 1883, and afterward purchased by the Prince of Wales. Her sails are set, and on every side are groups of fish, with modern implements and gear of every kind, in contrast with which is the primitive fishing apparatus of Canadian Indians. Of seals there are several specimens facing the central nave, and of shell-fish there is no lack, with oysters, clams, crabs, and lobsters of remarkable size and quality. Here also is the largest devil-fish every placed on exposition, and to fish products, as oils and skins, is given a conspicuous place.

The entrance to the principal court is in the form of an archway composed of canned fish with bottled goods inside the pillars, and at the top a panel formed of fish products. The interior is draped with netting, flags, and bunting, and on the columns are the dominion and provincial coats of arms. In the southern gallery Canada has also several sections, and here agin in scores of cases are numerous specimens of mounted fish and fish-destroying birds, but without a single duplicate. Fish, fish stories, and fishing scenes are likewise portrayed in graphic art. But here the centre of attraction is a model of a fishing station, with coast line and piers, warehouses, stores, and dwellings, resembling a seaport town in miniature. Finally it may be said that the entire exhibit is in all respects worthy of the dominion, one on a larger and more comprehensive scale than any before attempted, and yet, as is said, with an overflow of specimens offered for exposition that would have filled at least one-half of the Fisheries building.

Adjacent on the west to Canada�s display is that of a country from which she is separated by half the circumference of the globe - the British colony of New South Wales. This is also a most interesting feature in the Fisheries department; for while less elaborate than that of the dominion, the majority of visitors will here for the first time be informed as to the vast resources of Australian fisheries. Many of the specimens are taken from the waters of Sydney harbor and the grounds adjacent, where are some of the most prolific fisheries in the world. Among the principal food fish are the schnapper, bream, rock-cod, gar-fish, mullet, mackerel, and whiting. The first is a favorite pan fish, with firm, white flesh of excellent flavor, and weighing when full grown from six to nine pounds, though twenty-pound schnappers are by no means rare. It is found in vast shoals along the entire [533] eastern coast of the southern continent, and is one of the most voracious of fish, greedily seizing the bait, and taken by hook and line at all seasons of the year. The bream is second in flavor only to the schnapper, and by many the gar-fish and the red and black rock-cod are preferred to either. Of mullet there are several varieties, the sea mullet resembling the Scotch salmon in taste and fibre, and of astonishing fecundity, the roe of the female containing more than 2,000,000 eggs. About Christmas week - the Australian midsummer - and for several weeks thereafter, the expanse of ocean is partly covered by migrating schools of mackerel. The whiting has no affinity to the European species, but is of superior quality, and when lightly cured and smoked is esteemed as a table delicacy. Then there are the coarse grained jew and king-fish, the salmon, unworthy of its name, and of which only the roe is eaten, the herring, of excellent flavor but little used for food, the perch and flat-head, the latter with white, flaky flesh, the flounder and sole; while among crustacea the cray-fish is not inferior to the American lobster, and oysters and other mollusks abound in every bay and inlet.

With all this wealth of fisheries it is somewhat remarkable that New South Wales imports from abroad more than three fourths of her entire consumption, about $200,000 representing the value of fresh fish sold in Sydney markets against $650,000 worth of imported fish preserved in various forms. This is due mainly to high prices caused by the rapid depletion of the grounds within and adjacent to Port Jackson, for as a rule the colonial fisherman will not venture more than a mile or two from Sydney heads, and experienced sea-going fishermen supplied with modern implements are almost unknown in Australian waters. The appliances used are the same as did service half a century ago, and the field is still restricted to grounds that have been worked for several score of years, a seine and meshing-net with a rickety open boat forming the entire outfit. There is not a fishing steamer or even a fishing smack in all the Australian colonies, and apart from the primitive apparatus, there is no provision for deep-sea fishing of any kind. Here in truth is an outlet for foreign capital and enterprise, one capable of infinite development and offering sure and speedy returns; for while there is no country in the world with richer resources in this direction, there is none where these resources have been so much neglected and mismanaged.

To make known the latent wealth of Australian fisheries, their products, methods, and results, was the special object of the colonial government of New South Wales. To this end are shown several groups of canned goods, and of marine and fresh-water fish preserved in alcohol, as schnapper, whiting, rock-cod, flounder, gar-fish, flat-head, and an assortment of dried fish and fish oils. There is also a large display of pearl and oyster shells, some of the latter [534] clinging to bars of iron as found in ocean�s bed, and in another group are fish fertilizers and soaps. In cases on either side of the court are mounted specimens of fish-eating birds, as the fish-hawk, cormorant, shag, large-billed bittern, gray heron, and sea-gull. A careful collection has been made of the reptiles of the colonies, and of these there are many hundreds preserved in alcohol. Australian smoked fish occupy a large space in the rear of the section, near which are cabinets of shells, reptiles, and marine fish from the Sydney museum.

On the left of the court is a small yacht, made of Australian wood, equipped as a pleasure craft for amateur fishermen, and near the entrance is a model of a twenty-two foot fishing boat. The west wall is covered with a series of paintings of marine fish, and at either end are handsome photographs of the fish market at Woolloomoolloo, a suburb of Sydney . On the east wall are choice paintings of salt-water fish by a prominent Australian artist, and at the portal is a trophy in the form of a lighthouse, composed of canned goods. Seals disporting on rocks in the centre of the court form an attractive group, and colonial flags and banners are among the decorative features of the display.

France occupies but a narrow space in the Fisheries department, between the British and Canadian sections. One half of the enclosure is occupied by exhibits of canned fish, mainly sardines and anchovies, with photographs illustrative of canning and other processes, among them the preparation of the olive oil in which the fish are preserved. The remainder of the space is largely devoted to the sardine fisheries, one of the exhibiting firms constructing pyramids of packed sardines; in the background a fishing scene is represented in graphic art. Nets, with a single model of a boat and a collection of gold medals, complete the private exhibits. From the government is an exposition of the national fisheries, with statistics, plans of hatcheries and grounds, and a chart showing the annual production of oysters.

Germany has a small and compact exhibit in the southwestern corner of the building, consisting largely of models of fishing craft, fully equipped and rigged, and of schooners and steamers used for conveying fish to market. One of the groups consists of fish guanos and chemicals, and another of fishermen�s houses, fish markets, and their appurtenances. There are also pounds, traps, apparatus for transporting fish, and maps and diagrams showing the coast line of sea fisheries. A Munich firm has a large collection of hooks, lines, and spinners, and from Holstein come netting, baled rope, seines, corks, oars and prongs, buoys, and a model of the cutters used in the North sea. Another firm sends neatly bound volumes on the fishing industries of Germany, and there are large photographs of German scenery and of factories for the preparation of fish products.

In Russia, with her vast extent of coast and inland waters, the fisheries are of great economic value, far exceeding those of France and Germany, neither of which produce as largely as the dominion of Canada. In the White sea and on the norther coast of Norway several thousand tons, including more than 100,000,000 herring, are captured by Russian fishermen. In the sea of Azoff and on the lower Don about 20,000 men are employed, with other thousands among the estuaries of rivers discharging into the Black sea. But the principal fisheries are on the Caspian and its tributaries, those of the Volga and its delta extending over an area of 6,000 square miles, while from the Ural fish are taken fro 400 miles along its stream, the total catch exceeding 200,000 tons, worth at least 15,000,000 roubles. Within recent years a large station has been established at the Seenemorskoi fisheries on one of the mouths of the Volga delta, a region before uninhabited, and now supporting a flourishing settlement, with steamers, barges, lighters, and hundreds of fishing boats; with warehouses, stores, and barracks; schools, libraries, and hospitals, and all the adjuncts of a substantial and prosperous community. An average season�s take if valued at 2,500,000 roubles, the catch consisting mainly of herring and dace, but including nearly a score of varieties.

[535] - In the Russian section, fronting on the rotunda and central nave, are specimens of fish, fishing craft, and apparatus from all the more prominent grounds throughout the wide domain of the tzar. From the Caspian come models of full rigged vessels, and from the Astrakhan board of trade, typical Russian fishing-boats, including such as ply on the Volga, and convey the fish to market. There are the fishing garments worn in various localities, with appliances for sporting fishermen, and a collection of seal-skins and articles made therefrom by the monks of the Solovetzsky monastery at Archangel. Then there are numerous devices for catching fish, as hooks, nets, and traps, with the machines for making them, and the tin fish used for decoys by inland fishermen.

In rear of the pavilion is a large column of canned goods from a St. Petersburg firm, adjacent to which are cases of anchovies and an assortment of sturgeon in varied forms, with caviare, isinglass, and other industrial products. Of the specimens of fish-oils those from the Caspian sea rank first in commercial importance. Diagrams, charts, and maps are numerous, showing the location of the principal fishing grounds, and with statistical data as to the Ural Cossacks. A scene on the ocean shore, with hundreds of fishermen awaiting the signal to start, and a midwinter fishing scene on the Ural river are among the choicest photographs in this section, above which are suspended the Russian coat of arms and imperial crown, flags and netting forming the drapery of the pillars, while from the ceiling depends a large open trap-net serving as a canopy for the court.

The Netherlands, with her extensive fisheries, the herring catch of the North sea along being valued at several million guilders a year, occupies but a narrow space in this department of the Fair. The feature of interest is a model of a herring schooner fully equipped, with the Dutch flag at the mast, the captain on the bridge, and the men in the act of hauling in the net, the vessel floating on a turbulent sea. Around it are samples of herring, gill and drift nets, hand-lines, signal-flags, and other fishing and nautical apparatus.

Greece complete the list of European participants, her section in the southwest corner of the gallery containing an elaborate collection of sponges from prominent Athenian firms. These are of every conceivable shape, some resembling articles of wear or household use, others in crude form, clinging to pieces of rock and [536] shell or partially covered with fungi. There are specimens thirty inches in diameter, and many of the same width, but almost as thin as the leaf of a water lily. In front of the enclosure is the national flag, and above the archway are displayed the coat of arms and crown of modern Greece.

Mexico has a tasteful exhibit adjoining the northern portal of the Fisheries building; and nowhere in the department are sea-shells and scale-work of more beautiful and varied hues. The specimens of fish, while the list is not large, are also of wondrous shades of coloring, and some of them of most fantastic form. Many are in a preserved state; but there are also assortments of dried, canned, and pickled fish, including the turbot and shrimp. In cases of steel and glass are sponges from Pacific and Atlantic waters, and pearls and fresh-water shells, with articles of bric-a-brac made therefrom, in contrast with which are the bones and skin of the sea-cow. Around the enclosure are fish-traps, nets, oars, gigs, gaffs, spears, and fishing-rods. Yucatan�s contribution consists of a sea-wolf weighing about 1,000 pounds, and in the rear of the pavilions is a sea turtle more than five feet in length and as broad as long.

In a spacious enclosure fronting on the northeastern aisle Japan has arranged her exhibits with method and decorative effect. On the outer sides of the entranceway where are Japanese masts, with cross-piece of oars and drapery of netting, are long tiers of shelving, containing specimens of fish in all the forms of preparation peculiar to the Japanese. There are numerous samples of canned goods, as salmon, smoked herring, oysters, halibut, tai, and a large variety of such delicacies as oyster sauce, sea-urchin paste, and sharks� fins prepared for soup. Fish scrap is shown in rope-bagging made of the stringy portions of dried lobsters. Guano from fish products, dried sea-ears, and soup extracts in bottles, boxes, and jars form another group, while blocks of wax from whale, sardine, and herring products are some of the materials of which Japanese candles are made. To illustrate their methods of sardine fishing and preparation for market, a number of pictures are interspersed among the exhibits. A collection of large photographs shows Japanese vessels in pursuit of the cormorant, and an oyster fishermen�s village fashioned of bamboo, while the shark, cod, salmon, gold-fish, and many rare oriental species are also reproduced in graphic art.

In one shape or another, nearly all the products of Japanese waters are here displayed. Mackerel, white-fish, sardines, plaice, bonita, cod, and dolphin are shown in forms prepared for table. In bottles there are well preserved specimens of fresh and salt-water fish, including the flying-fish, gold-fish, ox-tail, and red-scup. In alcohol are the Japanese star-gazer, black-perch, toad-fish, and carp, while shrimp soup in bottle, shrimps boiled in sea-water, abalone made into a relish for breakfast, smelts preserved in wine sediment, dried anchovies, and boneless herring, are a few of the [537] luxuries contained in this section. The group of sea and spider crabs is worthy of mention, and the lobster without claws is somewhat of a novelty. Many articles are also on exposition, as paper made of sea-weed, scrap for fertilizing, and herring, sperm, whale, and other oils for various purposes.

In Japan all varieties of sea-weed are utilized, the yellow sea-weed being made into isinglass, of which the samples resemble the product of Irish moss. From other forms are shown specimens of jellies, salads, and gelatine, while from the more valuable grades is made a preparation highly prized for soups and extracts. Boneless cuttle-fish, of which there is a considerable export, are displayed with the bones at their side in the form of a small shot, used by the Japanese for canary shooting. Oyster shells of remarkable size, pearl shells in profusion and of beautiful tint, and the largest collection of small seashells in the Fisheries building are arranged in attractive groups.

The exhibit illustrating Japanese methods of capturing and preparing fish forms the central feature of the court. Here oddly-shaped fishing and angling boats are shown in miniature, with nets and outfit to match. Different varieties of nets, for herring, salmon, sardines, and tunny-fish are side by side with models of pound nets. Here also is a collection of curious fish-hooks, bait, flies, and trawls. Resting on a miniature ocean is a small fishing-boat, the crew of which are watching a number of decoy ducks fastened to their craft and floating on the water. A model of a furnace, with apparatus for curing fish, and an assortment of fish knives represent Japanese modes of preparing fish for food purposes, while for extracting oils and converting the scrap into fertilizing substances, there are the old-fashioned hand-press and modern machinery, both in the form of models.

Entering the western annex from the main building, the first exhibit is that of the fish commission of Pennsylvania. In the centre of its pavilion is a miniature grotto, with a cascade descending into a pool below, and beneath the waterfall, a weir showing the method of catching mountain trout. In the pool are several fine specimens circling around the rocks and river plants, which give to it the appearance of a natural fish-pond. Surrounding the grotto are long rows of tanks, in which, swimming in their several aquaria, are most of the fish that frequent the waters of the state, including the sturgeon, pike, perch, trout, carp, catfish, and gar-fish. Aquatic birds are freely displayed, and there are photographs and models of hatcheries and fish-ways, with modern pisciculture processes in actual operation.

Wisconsin occupies the adjacent section, and here are fully illustrated the excellent results attained by the state fish commission. In a series of tanks are displayed, among other specimens of native fish, the small-mouthed black-bass, sun and gold-fish, carp, rainbow-trout, cat-fish, bullhead, pike, and sturgeon. Statistics and other data are arranged in interesting form, [539] and aquatic plants artistically grouped add to the realistic appearance of the scene.

Across the aisle adjoining is the Brazilian exhibit, an interesting collection of the primitive fishing implements of native tribes, near which are the tackle and appliances today in use on the Amazon and other fishing streams. From Paria comes a peculiar type of fishing boat, and from a botanical museum a collection of canoes made of bark and dug-outs hewn from a single log; but the most remarkable among the fishing craft is a specimen of such as ply on the waters of Pernambuco harbor and neighboring ports. In shape it resembles a raft made of logs, and is without compass or rudder, but will safely carry its crew far out to sea, or through waters where an ordinary boat would be swamped. Another unique exhibit is of the implements with which the ganoidal order of fish are caught by spearing them between their angular scales. In one of the cases is a collection of sponges, ornamental specimens, canned good, fish-oils, and reptiles, some of the last of brilliant hues.

In the next section are paintings of American game-fish, algae, and other forms of sea-life, with some choice paintings of the auk, an aquatic bird which has partially become extinct. One of the latter represents the bird�s egg in life size, and in graphic art are reproduced scenes on and around Funk island, off the coast of Newfoundland, where was its breeding ground. Here it may be mentioned that, some years ago, Captain Collins, chief of the Fisheries department, gathered on this island more skeletons and bones of the auk than are possessed by all the museums in the world. An oil painting of the well-known fisherman Reuben Wood shows him with rod and reel in the act of casting a fly.

Near by a Chicago firm has a display of row and sail boats, with a seamless canoe made of a substance called linenoid, and an odd looking duck-boat almost as flat as a board, but warranted to "run wherever it is a little damp." A firm doing business in Racine, Wisconsin, shows a collection of fishing camp apparatus, and an Evanston exhibitor, a facsimile of the tent ordered by Lieutenant Perry for his expedition to the North pole. A Clayton, New York, establishment occupies a considerable space with a St. Lawrence skiff and a number of canoes, row-boats, and yawls, one of which cannot be capsized, and, though nor more than twenty-five feet long and with four-foot beam, weighs, with its ballasting, over 500 pounds.

[540] - By an Ohio and a Michigan firm are exhibited folding boats for amateur fishermen. Though dissimilar as to pattern, the general make up of the vessels is the same, consisting merely of canvas, with an oil coating which renders them impervious to water, drawn over a frame-work, and so arranged that the frame can be taken out and the canvas wrapped around it, forming a burden which a man can easily carry, the entire equipment weighing only fifty pounds.

Forest and Stream has one of the most attractive exhibits in the annex. It consists for the most part of photographs of hunting and fishing scenes, forming a collection of prize competitive work from all parts of the United States. The largest tarpon ever caught, weighing more than 200 pounds, is here on exposition, together with the apparatus by which it was captured; and by way of decoration are the heads of moose, buffalo, and mountain-goat, with gill-nets, rods, lines, and flags arranged in artistic forms. In a handsome case are files of the Forest and Stream from 1874 to 1893, with works on hunting and fishing, fish stories, and other interesting matter. Other features are the canoe of the patron saint of sportsmen, a model of the yacht Gloriana, and an assortment of Kentucky reels, none of them less than fifty years old, contributed by J. A. Henshall. A gun taken from a poacher at Yellowstone park by the editor of this periodical is one of the curiosities of the display. By the American Angler is also exhibited a fine collection of paintings of all the fish taken in American waters.

In the centre of the building are several private collections of rods, some with double enamel finish, of reels, tackle, hooks, landing-nets, and other articles pertaining to the craft. From Rochester comes an exhibit of automatic reels, while a Chicago firm displays its kosmic rods, some of them mounted in gold and silver. Another Chicago exhibitor has fishing-tackle with bell attachment, so that, when the fish bites, the alarm is given. By one of the participants are shown several machines in operation, manufacturing silk fishing-lines, 576 threads of raw silk being used for the making of a single line the thickness of an ordinary thread of worsted. In the angling section proper, an article never before on exposition is in the form of a flanged, flint-glass tube, in which is placed a live minnow for bait, and with a hole in the end to admit the water and to keep the fish alive.

The New England states made a fine display of the various appliances used in the fishing industry, including baits, lines, weirs, seines, and pound, purse, and gill-nets, the last showing how mackerel, herring, and cod are taken. Ohio has stuffed specimens in alcohol of all her principal fish, with aquatic birds peculiar to the state, and from the Cincinnati society of natural history are specimens of the smaller species, with all manner of aquatic insects. In the Missouri section is a complete display of indigenous specimens, including pickerel from the streams and lakes, striped-bass, German carp, small-mouthed bass from the Black river, paddle-fish, crappie, silver-bass, black-gilled sun-fish, sheeps-head, black-buffalo, sturgeon, tench, and cat-fish from the Missouri.

The Chicago fly-casting club, as a part of their exhibit, have reproduced on the shore of the north pond Izaak Walton�s fishing cabin as still it stands on the banks of the Dove. From a manufacturing [541] company of Chicago is a display of artificial flying-fish, with the process by which they are made, and among other articles, one of the finest collections of flies in the western annex.

World�s Fair Miscellany - In the decorative scheme of the Fisheries building there are some daring features, showing that the artificer has given rein to his fancy, and yet with pleasing effect. For the capital of one of the columns, for instance, a lobster-pot suggested a design in which is found nothing inappropriate. Over one of the door-ways is a group of sportive frogs, joined hand in hand in dance. Elsewhere the purposes of the building are freely suggested by its decorative themes. Around one pillar is a procession of sea-horses, and others are covered with star-fish, lizards and eels, lobsters, crabs, and turtles, with pisciform balustrades, the heads of fish resting against the railings, and their tails interlaced below.

Among individual exhibits not mentioned in the text are a couple of St. Lawrence skiffs in the northwest corner of the gallery. These are from a Canadian boat firm, and are built of the finest wood, with nickel-plated rowlocks and bolts. Across the aisle from California�s section is a private display of canned goods, as clams, clam bouillon, and sturgeon. In the north gallery a Wyoming inventor shows a device for conveying small fish alive to market, and near by is a private collection of birds, shells of all kinds and colors, corals, fossils, and marine curiosities.

The collection of Kentucky reels in the Forest and Stream exhibit is of special interest, as showing all the improvements made in this direction, form more than half a century, in the state where multiplying reels were first invented.

Between the 19th and 22nd of September was held the fishermen�s congress, with contests among fishermen for which prizes were awarded. After the session on the 19th the members dines together and then attended the procession of fishermen�s boats on the lagoons. In front of this procession was a square-rigged whale-boat, followed by small craft representing all nationalities, including yawls from the Columbian caravels manned by United States marines and Spanish sailors. There were Eskimo kyacks, Ceylonese outriggers, Norwegian fishing-boats, lobster dories, racing shells, canoes, canvas folding boats, with a water bicycle and other craft, forming the most heterogenous collection of vessels ever got together. On the 20th there was a fish-boat regatta. The first race was between two Eskimos in kyacks; the second between canvas folding boats, in which three of the four contestants lost or broke their oars; the third was for Indian crews, and the fourth a free-for-all race, won by a birch bark canoe.

On the 21st and 2nd an angling tournament was held, under the auspices of the Chicago fly-casting club, open to all the world, with seven events, for which as many championship medals were awarded, together with other prizes, George W. Strell, president of the club, being appointed executive officer. There were 51 entries and the contests were witnessed by a large assemblage of sportsmen; for this was probably the greatest event of its kind on record.

The winners were as follows, the events being given in the order of the programme: Amateur accuracy fly-casting, H. G. Leavitt of Grand Island, 87 percent; second, J. E. Isgrigg of Chicago, 83 1/2. Amateur bait-casting for distance and accuracy combined, F. B. Davidson of Chicago, average of five casts, 106 1/5 feet; second, J. M. Clark, 103 4/5. Export long distance fly-casting, R. C. Leonard of New York, 96 1/2 feet; second, P. C. Hewitt of New York, 92 feet. Expert accuracy fly-casting, 88 percent; second, P. C. Hewitt, 85 2/3. Expert bait-casting for distance and accuracy combined, E. E. Wilkinson of Chicago, average of five casts, 134 1/5 feet; second, R. C. Leonard, 107 2/5. Amateur light rod competition for accuracy and delicacy in fly-casting, W. H. Babcock, 103 1/3 percent; second, J. E. Isgrigg, 97. Team contest, three men of Chicago vs. three of Indianapolis, long distance fly-casting; Chicago, 246 feet; Indianapolis, 217 feet.

For several years the mackerel fisheries of New England have shown signs of depletion or desertion, due as some have it to the purse seines largely used since about 1875, before which date only the larger fish were taken by hook and line. Of lobsters the catch was also largely decreasing, through want of protection, only some 250,000 cases being canned in 1892, against twice that quantity for 1890. Halibut were growing scarcer every season, though the deficiency was partially made up from Icelandic fisheries, whence more than 700 tons were taken by American craft in 1891, notwithstanding legislative prohibition. Herring showed no signs of decrease, 24,200,000 of these fish being handled in Boston markets alone. Of haddock the largest take recorded was in February, 1891, when a schooner caught on the Cape Shore ground 132,000 pounds, besides an equal quantity of other fish.

An acre of good fishing-ground, it has been said, will produce [542] more food than an acre of the best farming land. This is as true today as it was two or three centuries ago; for except in a few varieties there has been no very serious diminution in the supply of fish in United States waters, and all the species found in pilgrim times exist in abundance today. Meanwhile our fish trade has grown to enormous proportions, that of Boston, for instance, where the first fish store was opened in 1807, and the first fresh fish store in 1835, averaging more than $15,000,000 a year.

During the cod-fishing season at the Lofoden islands, in the months of February and March, the average catch is about 30,000,000 of fish, and of such importance is this industry that the number taken each day is telegraphed to all the principal cities in the kingdom. On a picturesque harbor in the heart of these islands is the town of Stamsund, where are the cod-liver oil works of Peter Moller, described in Paul B. Du Chaillu�s Land of the Midnight Sun. By Moller was originated the steam process of preparing this oil from fresh, clean, healthy livers, and without nauseating smell or taste. When the midnight sun appears in all his radiant splendor, illuminating some of the most romantic of Norwegian scenery, the islands are visited by thousands of tourists. Here snow-clad peaks rise in almost perpendicular lines for thousands of feet above the ocean. For most of the year the ravines are filled with snow, and thence numberless streams descend in foaming cascades to the fjords below.

The edible sea-weed mentioned in the Japanese exhibit is dissolved, when boiled, into a glue-like liquid, but of palatable flavor. When used for soup it is cut into shreds which resemble curls of light, fluffy hair. For one purpose or another the Japanese use almost every form of sea product. The octopus and squid are eaten, and the toad-fish is prized for its medicinal properties, the soup made therefrom being freely used by invalids. All these are on exposition in this section.

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