THE BOOK OF THE FAIR:
Chapter the Twenty-Eighth: The California Midwinter International Exposition
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 - To describe in these pages the California Midwinter Exposition was no part of my purpose when I took upon myself the task of writing The Book of the Fair; nor could it have been so; for at the time no such project was undertaken or even entertained. But here is an outcome of the Columbian Exposition without which a description of the latter could not be considered as complete; for not only were the best exhibits from the Pacific coast transferred with many additions to their winter quarters, but here also are not a few of the most attractive features in the Midway plaisance and in other portions of the great entertainment at Jackson park. Two unsuccessful efforts had been made to place California prominently before the nations; but here was an opportunity such as never before had occurred, and might not occur again for at least a score of years. While by no means a mere imitation of its predecessor, and with much that is novel and original, it may be said that as a purely original enterprise the Midwinter Fair could not have been opened for ten times its actual cost and probably could never have been opened at all.
Early in the season of the Chicago Fair a wish was expressed by many of the exhibitors that another international exposition could be held somewhere within the limits of the United States, but one on a smaller scale and more select in character. To make even a superficial examination of the collections housed in Jackson park was the task of several weeks, and to examine them critically and in detail the entire six months' term would not have sufficed. Under such conditions only the most striking exhibits found favor with the majority of sight-seers, while even the best appeared at a disadvantage amid all these acres of floor space, and of many the effect was marred by juxtaposition with others of inferior quality. Here was the main drawback to the Columbian display, its only serious drawback; so that men said as Edward Everett Hale remarked of the Vienna Exposition: "If this be a specimen of the world, then one wants a museum which shall be a specimen of the Exposition."
Among others to whom the project commended itself was Michael H. de Young, vice-president of the  Columbian commission, one of the California commissioners to Paris in 1889, and thus a man of experience in the affairs of international expositions. Why not hold such a fair in San Francisco, one that should open in midwinter and be known as the Midwinter Fair? Here would at least be a novel display, and one whose attractions would be increased by its environment, especially to those who came from afar to see it; for in winter the golden state is attired in robes of emerald, a covering of verdure taking the place of snow, and at no season of the year does the climate appear to such advantage. Another incentive was that although the Californian exhibits at Jackson park, in common with those of other sections of the coast, were a source of general admiration and surprise, to Californians themselves they were a disappointment; for, as was thought, they did not adequately represent the resources and achievements of the community. As compared with less favored regions California was little known; her changed conditions were little understood; and to make her known, to place her in the rank to which she was entitled among the sisterhood of states, was the main object of the Midwinter Exposition.
To a few of the more prominent Californians then sojourning in Chicago De Young explained his plans, with the benefits that would result therefrom, and on the 1st of June the announcement was made that an international fair would be opened in San Francisco a few weeks after the close of the Columbian Exposition. At first it was received as a joke, or at least as a rash and ill-advised project, one for which the time was too short, for which no state, municipal, or government aid could be expected, and that must be achieved, if achievement were possible, entirely through the private subscriptions of a community overtaken by severe and protracted business depression. No wonder that with these drawbacks, and coming as it did immediately after the most imposing display of industries and arts that the world had ever witnessed, moneyed men regarded the scheme with disfavor.
But the projectors were thoroughly in earnest; nor was it from moneyed men but from the people that they expected to raise the necessary means; for this was to be a people's fair, an enterprise in which all might join, in which all might feel a worthy pride, as the first undertaking of its kind that had ever been attempted on the Pacific coast. At a second meeting, held in Chicago on the 11th of June, $41,500 was subscribed as a nucleus for the Exposition fund, and a few days later 4,400 exhibitors at the Columbian Fair had promised as  many exhibits, only those of superior quality being accepted. If at first the wealthier citizens of San Francisco were somewhat lukewarm in their support, this feeling was presently overcome as meetings were held, subscriptions came pouring in, and it was seen that the public had taken hold of the matter with the enthusiasm characteristic of Californians. Before the close of August there was sufficient money on hand to insure the success of the project; congress gave to it official sanction, and meanwhile a permanent organization had been effected, with De Young as president and director-general, Irwin C. Stump as vice-president, P. N. Lilienthal as treasurer, and as secretary, Alexander Badlam, other members of the executive committee being Colonel A. Andrews and Robert B. Mitchell, all citizens of San Francisco. To these were later added Eugene J. Gregory of Sacramento, J. E. Slauson of Los Angeles, Felton G. Berry of Fresno, and Jacob H. Neff of Colfax. There was also a finance committee, of which W. H. L. Barnes was chairman, with Herman Shainwald as manager, and by both excellent work was accomplished, no effort being spared to secure such a fair as would be a credit to California, to the Pacific coast, and especially to the city by the Golden Gate.
The site selected was in Golden Gate park, which a score of years ago was little more than a wilderness of sand-dunes, and is now the pride of the home-loving San Franciscan, its spacious avenues lined with trees and its gras-planted surface covered in part with shrubbery, with acres of lawn, and flower-beds filled with semi-tropical plants. Extending from the shore of the ocean to within somewhat less than a league from the business quarter of the city, and with a surface of more than 1,000 acres, it is reached by several lines of cable cars running at from three to five minute intervals. Near the centre is "Concert valley," at the time unreclaimed but intended later as a permanent location for the purpose which its name implies. This was the chosen spot, its area with additions as afterward needed amounting in all to more than 160 acres; for applications for space were far in excess of the original estimate. No great expense for grading was needed, nor any large outlay for landscape decoration, since in the park itself were all the elements of the picturesque. At one end of the site is Strawberry hill, forming the background of the vista, on its crest an observatory and beneath it an artificial lake. Here, under the shadow of the Pacific, the dedication ceremonies were held on the 24th of August in the presence of 60,000 people, by each and all of whom it was hoped that the event would mark a new epoch in the history of California.
Not least among the wonders of the Columbian Exposition was the speed with which its structures were erected; but as to those of the Midwinter Fair it may be said that, like the city which contains them, they sprang up almost in a night. It was not until late in September that the contracts for the first buildings were awarded, and yet at the formal opening on the 27th of January, a space of about four months, all the principal and most of the minor pavilions were practically completed. While none of them rival the magnificent proportions of the Columbian temples, there are many whose skillful composition and beauty of design leave nothing to be desired. The larger edifices, five in number, are mainly of oriental type, built around the grand court, or court of honor, in Concert valley, and approached by a series of stairway and terraces. Giving further emphasis to the architectural scheme is the Bonet electric tower in the centre, an iron structure, 266 feet high and of symmetric outline. In this group of edifices utility has nowhere been sacrificed to mere display, nor is there undue striving after effect; but rather a just adaptation of parts, an interdependence one another, and of all on the landscape setting. There is nothing gaudy about them, and there is nothing of incongruity. The coloring is subdued; the facades are substantial, staff-covered, and somewhat heavy in outline; the windows arched and deep-set, the roofs low, red-tiled, and surmounted with domes of blue or gilded pinnacles and kiosks, while shady loggias and arcades recall to mind the mission days of Franciscan padres. Whether considered  apart or as a single architectural composition with harmonious blending of device, the buildings are a credit to their artificers, and the more so that their plan is original, so far at least as originality consists in the adaptation of ancient methods to modern conditions.
In the decoration of the grounds, and especially of the central court, it was intended to give to them in part a semi-tropical appearance, and for this purpose everything was at command; for the park commissioners placed at the disposal of the landscape gardeners thousands of trees and plants, while generous contributions were received from every portion of the state. Palms are everywhere, rising from terraces and lawns, from towers and roof gardens, from the fronts of buildings and the borders of avenues. Almost side by side with the floral wealth of California and of eastern climes are the flowers and shrubbery of southern Europe, of India, Australia, New Zealand, the Sandwich Islands, and Japan, the specimens changed with the changing seasons and at all seasons loading the air with perfume and presenting a brilliant array of living color. At the head of the court is a fountain, with figures symbolic of California, and from an electric fountain at the opposite end countless jets of water rise to a height of 100 feet in wondrous shapes and in every hue of the rainbow. Elsewhere are the colossal statues of Columbus and Isabella, familiar to all pilgrims of the Columbian Fair. Surrounding the plaza is a spacious roadway, its centre macadamized and its sides forming polished walks of bitumen, within which are open spaces where thousands may stroll or linger without overcrowding.
Passing into the court from the principal entrance, the visitor finds himself in front of the Manufactures building, and here, if it be his first visit, he will tarry for a moment to view in their entirety the leading features of the Fair. Through the mist and spray of the fountain at the further end is seen the Administration building; on the right are the palace of Fine Arts and the hall of Horticulture and Agriculture; on the left the temple of Mechanical Arts, these with a few minor structures forming the architectural environment. From the roofs of the various buildings and from flagstaffs around the court are displayed the banners of all nations, while walls of ivory white relieved with more brilliant hues, gilded spires, and sombre tinted domes and cupolas, all contrasting with the rich green foliage, afford a striking combination of colors. Eastward is the harbor of San Francisco, flanked by a range of purple hills, with Mount Tamalpais keeping guard over the Golden Gate, beyond which are the blue waters of the Pacific.
 - As in the Columbian Exposition, the largest structure is the hall of Manufactures and Liberal Arts, planned by A. Page Brown after the Moorish style of architecture, the building with its annex and galleries having a floor space of 177,000 square feet. At each of the corners is a pavilion surmounted by a cupola 50 feet high, those that front on the central court being connected by a deeply recessed arcade, in the centre of which is the principal entrance, above it a lofty dome painted in turquoise blue and capped with a lantern finished in gold. Here is the point of architectural emphasis, the design being further relieved from monotony by figures symbolical of the arts and sciences, by gilded minarets, and by the flags and coats of arms of all the states and nations represented within, these extending the entire length of the cornices. The roof is of glass and dark red Spanish tiles, an upper gallery opening into a roof garden planted with fuchsias, palms, chrysanthemums, and the outdoor plants which thrive in the mild California winter. In the interior, spacious aisles intersected by a central nave divide the groups of exhibits, among which is much that was best worth preserving in the temples of Jackson park.
The exhibits, of which Frank McCoppin is in charge, are arranged in three divisions - Manufactures, Liberal Arts, and Ethnology and Archaeology, the last including such as relate to the progress of labor and invention. In the department of Manufactures are nearly all the classes contained at the Columbian Exposition, with other which there were displayed in separate buildings. Under the heading of Liberal Arts are education, literature, engineering, public works, music and the drama, with government and law, commerce and banking, social, religious, industrial, and cooperative organizations. In the third section are presented models and views of ancient monuments, cities, and habitations; the furniture, clothing, implements, and weapons of aboriginal races; inventions, and statues and portraits of inventors; objects which illustrate progress in the conditions of life and labor, with many additional classes and countless subdivisions grouped on floor and gallery; for within these walls are represented thirty-eight nationalities, including nearly all the great nations of Europe, Asia, and America, with many of their dependencies.
Education is a strong feature in the department of Liberal Arts, the exhibits of the University of California occupying the entire northern gallery, and including the display of the Lick observatory at Mount Hamilton. Colleges and schools both private and denominational are freely represented, while from the East, Harvard, Yale, and the Johns Hopkins university contribute much that is of interest. Libraries have also their place,  and in this connection may be mentioned the one from which were collated the materials for my historical and biographical works exhibited at the Fair, together with most of the historical matter inserted in the story of the Columbian Exposition, so far at least as it relates to the Pacific coast.
The Bancroft library is of its kind probably the most unique collection extant. It consists of some 60,000 books, maps, and manuscripts relating in whole or in part to the affairs of western North America, social, industrial, and political. Among them are found in richest abundance details of the discovery of the several parts of this vast domain, equivalent in area to one twelfth of the earth's surface, and the settlement and early occupation of the same. The exuberant and varied resources of this region, which embraces all the latitudes and climates of the northern hemisphere, can here be traced as in an open book; agricultural and mineral lands, their possibilities and yield; what commerce and manufactures have done; favorable and adverse influences of combined capital and combined labor; influence of the several religions and also of secret and other societies; the organization and evolution of governments and political science; in short, there is in this library ample material for the study of man, aboriginal and civilized, in all the requirements and conditions of life.
Nearly half a century of time and over half a million of dollars were consumed in making this collection. First, all the nooks and corners of North and Central and South American and the West India islands were searched for whatever had been written or printed therein, and whatever related to them which had been elsewhere published. Then Europe was several times visited in like manner; and in numberless instances where the desired books and manuscripts could not be purchased, copies were made. Work of this kind was done in all the great libraries of England, France, and Germany, of Italy and Spain. Everything in St. Petersburg relating to Alaska was translated and copied, the archives of Alaska, which were sent from Sitka to the office of the secretary of state in Washington, being transcribed as needed in full or in part by able translators and collators. In the libraries of the British museum, the London Geographical society, and others in England was found much rich material on the history of the Northwest coast during the fur hunting epoch and the subsequent settlement of British Columbia and Oregon by English-speaking people. The archives of Spain and Mexico supplied masses of historic data relating to the conquest and occupation of Spanish America, while chronicles of the doings of Anglo-Americans on the western slope were secured in the older settled sections of the eastern side.
When all that could be purchased on the subject - that is to say the history of western North America - was thus brought together from every quarter, and all desirable material that could not be purchased had been copied at a labor and expense never before approximated in the forming of great libraries, there still remained many historical gaps which could not be filled from any existing source. Then was devised a plan for gathering still further historical data relating to the early affairs of the several commonwealths, such as never before has been applied to any extensive effort of the kind. Corps of literary laborers, under competent leadership, were sent out in various directions to obtain and write from the mouths of living witnesses their own experiences. All the more prominent pioneers, and those who had taken an important part in making history were thus visited, and what they had seen and done was placed in imperishable form.
Hundreds of original manuscripts, of priceless value and of the utmost importance, were thus brought into existence and made a part of the Bancroft library. Among them were the narratives of the Hudson's Bay company's chief factors and chief traders; of Alaskan officials under Russian regime; of the trappers and traders of the northwestern interior; the adventurous missionaries and overland emigrants to Oregon and California during the forties, before gold in the Sierra foothills was thought of' the padres and mission-builders who came from Mexico and Lower California, leaving a line of Franciscan missionary stations from San Diego to San  Francisco bay; the old Spanish families long resident in San Diego, Los Angeles, and Santa Barabara; Marshall, Sutter, and the great gold discovery which revolutionized the financial world; the miners, the great agriculturists, and the railroad builders; the merchants, bankers, and manufacturers, with scores of others who contributed of their experiences to the general storehouse of knowledge in the form of manuscript histories or of shorter dictations.
Years of time and scores of secretaries were occupied in this work, during the progress of which Alaska was twice visited, and half a dozen journeys made to Mexico, with repeated tours of the entire territory to be covered. From the mission and family archives of southern California many thousands of important original papers and documents were secured, arranged, and bound in bulky quartos. Wagon loads of costly books and manuscripts were acquired at public and private sales of libraries, such as the Andrade collection destined for Maximilian's Imperial library of Mexico, but which at his death was shipped to Europe. Then there were the Pinart collection, the Ramirez collection, the Squier library, and fifty others. Of the 300 volumes of San Francisco mission archives, consisting of papers relating to Mexican land grants, gathered from all the pueblos and missions of California into the United States surveyor-general's office, there to be used in the adjudication of claims, an abstract was made, occupying a dozen Spanish copyists. The archiepiscopal archives were transcribed in like manner, this long, tedious, and expensive method being the only way in which the historical data contained in these invaluable collections could be brought into and made part of the Bancroft library.
A hundred like incidents illustrating the ways and means of this ingathering might be presented; but with the facts here given the reader is able to comprehend what otherwise might seem to him an exaggeration; namely, that this library is the largest collection of books and manuscripts in the world bearing on a single topic, if we may consider the history of a given area as a topic; that it is the largest collection of American history in the world; that no state or nation now in existence, or which ever had existence, has or ever can have as full and complete data concerning its early history as this collection gives to western North America; that with easily obtainable eastern data added, and the collection kept up in the future as it has been in the past, it is not possible for any individual state or nation, no matter at what expenditure of time and money, to create another library of American history which shall equal or even approach it, for the obvious  reason that, were the men and means at hand, the time has passed when it is possible to accomplish the pioneer work which gives to this one its exceptional value.
By the artificer of the Manufactures buildings was also designed the hall of Administration, which, as at the Columbian Exposition, is considered one of the architectural gems of the Fair. It is of moderate size and graceful proportions, its light and symmetric outlines accentuated by a spacious dome surmounting a central rotunda, and with pavilions at each of the corners, broad stairways and terraces giving further emphasis to this chaste and dignified composition. In style it is oriental, the body of the structure resembling somewhat an Indian pagoda, while in the main entrance, deeply vaulted, and in the mural decorations are traces of Moorish treatment. The interior of the dome is handsomely decorated, and on the outer surface are figures in relief, the light which streams from the tall windows beneath imparting a cathedral-like effect. Within are no exhibits, the various chambers being occupied by the managers, the foreign department, the bureau of information, and as headquarters for the press.
The palace of Fine Arts, erected by C. C. McDougall, with John A. Stanton in charge of its contents, is a modest structure of Egyptian type, constructed of brick and stone and intended as a permanent edifice. The exterior is adorned with palm and lotus leaves, with Egyptian and Assyrian deities carved in low relief, and the friezes are richly ornamented, the decorative scheme being fully in keeping with the architectural design. Set back some forty feet from the roadway and slightly raised above its level, the effect if further increased by a spacious vestibule guarded by sphinxes, and with floor of mosaic laid in Egyptian figures. Flanking the portico are massive columns supporting a gallery, whence pillars extend to the entablature, above which is a triangular crown. The interior is in keeping with the external aspect, the friezes, wainscotings, and staircases grotesque with conventional emblems, with heads of beast and bird. While to the buildings as a building, no exception can be taken, an exhibition of modern art would appear somewhat out of place in this Egyptian temple, with its pyramidal roof and walls as yellow as the sands of Nile.
In the central hall is most of the statuary, the chambers adjoining being mainly devoted to water colors, and the oil paintings contained in the five compartments of the annex. All branches of art are included in the display and among the works are many from artists of repute in all the principal nations represented at the Columbian Exposition, some of them still alive and some who live only in their canvases. Corot and Daubigny are here, with Jules Dupre, Troyon, Henner, and Claude Monet. Of the Russian school there are Makovsky and others, and from Poland comes almost intact the collection of the society of Polish artists. England, and Canada, Italy, Spain, and Germany also find expression in these galleries. Of American painters there are several who rank among the great masters of their craft, while of the California display it need only be said that it is the best exhibition of local art ever gathered in a single collection.
Horticulture and agriculture are prominent features at the Midwinter Fair, and in these departments are also included dairying, forestry, fisheries, fish products, and pisciculture, with other branches for which no separate structures were provided. For the housing of the various collections a single roomy edifice, designed by Samuel Newsom, with Emory E. Smith as chief of department, was erected in the style of architecture characteristic of the pastoral era, with low, massive walls of dull yellow tint, deeply arched entrances, and shady porticos inviting to repose. A glass covered dome 100 feet in diameter surmounts the central rotunda, and around it are smaller domes, with towers above the principal entrance and over the eastern end. The decorations of the building are more suggestive of its purposes than the building itself; for though an excellent combination of mission architecture, it is filled with products such as were never raised on California soil until long after the missionary era.
 - In the centre of the rotunda is a striking display of fruits from Fresno county, arranged in architectural forms and surrounded by agricultural groups from other counties. In a court adjoining is a classified array of vegetables, with a Ferris wheel constructed of oranges, and in adjacent sections are exhibits of tobacco, of California, Spanish, and Portuguese wines, and of malt and spirituous liquors. Here also are beef extracts and other food products, while from the San Francisco produce exchange comes a choice display of grain. In the southwest wing is a large assortment of dressed meats and agricultural implements, beyond which is a model fish hatchery from Mendocino county. The main floor is covered with avenues of booths and pavilions, interspersed with trees and flowering plants, each exhibitor striving to surpass all others in beauty of design and decoration. On the floors above is an endless display of fruits and flowers and forest growth, including the collections of the state boards of horticulture and sericulture. Here is the most attractive portion of the building, and perhaps of the Fair; for in these galleries the interblending of foliage with floral effects, of stately palms, of ferns and vines and broad-leafed plants, gives to them the aspect, perfume, and color of a spacious and richly stocked conservatory.
The hall of Mechanic Arts, with Edmund R. Swain as its artificer, is fashioned so far as conditions would permit in the style of an Indian temple, its external aspect in contrast with the whirl of machinery, the models of railroads and steamboats, and the electric appliances contained within; nor is the effect improved by the boiler-house in rear, with the smokestacks of its furnaces in close proximity to lofty pinnacles, prayer-towers, and gilded kiosks. Nevertheless it is a pleasing composition, well conceived and skillfully worked out to completion. Its most striking feature is the richly colored entrance-way, in the form of a pavilion with pyramidal roof, and flanked with stately minarets. At the corners are large octagonal towers, the spaces between them and the main portal being pierced with arched openings and the whole exterior aglow with tasteful ornamentation.
Subject to the direction of A. M. Hunt, as chief of department, the groups were classified and arranged under the divisions of machinery; mines, mining, and metallurgy; transportation, railways, vessels, and vehicles; electricity and electrical appliances. In the centre of the main floor, surrounded by a circle of pumps, are two large tanks, into one of which are discharged the waters of a miniature cataract, illumined at night by electric lights. At the southern end are the engines and dynamos which furnish light and power to the buildings; in the western and northeast sections is the lighter machinery, and to the right of the main entrance are the electrical exhibits, including that of the General Electric company, near which is the display of Germany and  France, and across the aisle that of Great Britain. The mining exhibits of California, arranged by counties, occupy a large portion of the main floor, and here is a most elaborate display of the mineral wealth of the state, the list including 35 varieties, of some of which there are countless specimens. In the centre is a large gilded globe resting on a pedestal upheld by granite columns and surmounted by a grizzly bear. In this sphere is illustrated California's total yield of gold, and if made of that metal it would represent a value of $1,300,000,000.
On a commanding location near the Horticultural building is the home of Southern California, approached from the central court through an avenue lined with orange and palm trees. Erected by the Southern California Midwinter Fair association for the use of several counties, its contents are worthy of what has been termed the Mediterranean region of the Pacific coast, where are raised nearly all the products of Italy, Greece and Spain. In the centre of the main floor are the exhibits of Los Angeles county, a feature in which is an oriental arch built of oranges and surmounted by an elephant, life-size and fashioned of walnuts. In rear of this is a walnut tower that did duty at the Columbian Exposition, a ton of nuts being used in its construction. On the left is a mammoth ear of corn covered with 45 bushels of grain in the cob; in the foreground is a pyramid of oranges from Pasadena, and behind it a tower of olive oil from Pomona, with tables between these structural groups on which are arranged the citrus fruits of other sections. Dried fruits are also grouped in artistic designs; from prominent vintners and viticulturists come 1,000 bottles of wine, and there is a model farm with orange grove and field of alfalfa, illustrating old fashioned and modern methods of irrigation.
Ventura county has a pagoda of beans in 83 varieties, with a choice array of fruits, almonds, and honey. The exhibits of San Bernardino and Riverside are in keeping with their reputation as among the great citrus belts of the state, the former having also wheat and wine with beet sugar from the Chico factory and mineral specimens from scores of mines, while Riverside, in addition to her Ferris wheel and pyramid of oranges, has peaches, prunes, and apricots, appearing to the best advantage during the term of the Southern citrus fair, opened in this building on the 20th of February. San Diego has her Silver Gate warehouse composed of many varieties of dried fruits and grains, with cereals in sheaf and windows of honey, jellies, and wines. The archway is handsomely decorated in seeds and grains; there are columns of olive oil and lemons, and nearby is an abundance of citrus fruits, the interior walls being hung with pampas plumes, photographs, and paintings in oil. There is also a display of mounted animals and birds, and of food fish more than 100 descriptions. In  the gallery of the main building are a woman's department and an art exhibit, with parlors, offices, an assembly hall, and committee and reading rooms.
Northern and Central California erected for the housing of their collective exhibits a commodious structure near the Administration building, of no special order of architecture and intended for utility rather than display. The interior is richly decorated with floral embellishments, its contents consisting largely of fruits, grains, and minerals, a feature in which is the exhibit of the Northern citrus fair in competition with that of Southern California. Oranges by tens of thousands are arranged in attractive forms, with other fruits, green, dried, canned, and bottled, and with choice assortments of vegetables. Cereals are also grouped in many devices; in a figure of Ceres, in the form of a woman, and in the shape of a gigantic ear composed of many thousands of ears. And so with wine, of which there is a mammoth bottle fashioned of several hundred bottles, while one of the counties has a fountain flowing with wine. Of manufactures there are excellent samples, and in a word all the leading industries and resources of California, north of the Golden Gate, are here represented; but as these exhibits are culled from eleven counties, they cannot be described in detail.
Several of the counties erected pavilions of their own, first among which may be mentioned that of Alameda, a handsome structure of oriental design and appearing to excellent advantage on its prominent site to the south of the Administration building. In front of the main entrance is a garden of semi-tropical plants; from the gallery is access to a roof garden, and the exhibiting space in the central court is well stocked with the productions of one of the most favored sections of California. Santa Clara displays her wealth of fruits and other products in a neat, rectangular edifice, its tower draped with flags and its cream-white color in contrast with the surrounding foliage. San Mateo's building is of the mission order, and its contents in keeping with the reputation of that county as a horticultural district. San Joaquin has a tasteful pavilion of cruciform shape, its central dome encircled with a balcony and capped with a graceful cupola. Worthy of note are the floral decorations of its interior, and especially of the main aisle, which is one mass of flower and plants. Manufactures are the principal feature in the exhibits, though the products of farm, orchard, and vineyard are well represented. Monterey, whose history antedates the landing of the pilgrim fathers, finds expression in one of the quaint farm buildings of a century ago, where, in addition to the fruits of the soil, are relics of mission days. In Santa Barbara's pyramidal structure olives and olive oil are among the principal groups, and in the centre is reproduced the obelisk, framed of oranges, which attracted so much attention at the Columbian Fair. Humboldt erected  an unpretentious edifice constructed entirely of native woods and stocked with lumber, grain, and fruits. Tulare has, in place of a separate building, a model irrigated farm with growing crops, forming a unique and novel feature among the county exhibits.
The states adjoining California on the north and east have also their separate buildings at the Fair, others being represented chiefly in the main departments. Oregon has a handsome structure in the most populous part of the grounds, well stored with exhibits which, except for semi-tropical fruits, include nearly all the classes displayed by California. Prominence is given to manufactures, in which Oregon rivals her southern sister, though here is sufficient proof, if proof were needed, of her wondrous fertility of soil. Nevada has an edifice of the mission order, the contents of which at once dispel the popular illusion that silver and sagebrush are the principal products of the state. For the first time, outside her own boundaries, Nevada has given adequate expression to her resources, showing that she is rich in the yield of her farms as well as in that of her mines. There are deciduous fruits of many varieties and of excellent quality, while from the floral decorations it will be seen that California is not the only clime "where the Junes and Decembers meet."
Foreign residents of California have shown their interest in the Fair by erecting structures characteristic of their native land. As headquarters for British visitors was built, near the home of San Joaquin county, "Anne Hathaway's cottage," with thatched roof, projecting gables, and the tiniest of windows, all as in the original at Stratford-on-Avon. It is a quaint and restful piece of architecture, and not inappropriate to the part which it plays at an international exposition; for Shakespeare belongs not to England alone but to all the world. Nestling among the trees and in neighborly proximity is the Canadian domicile, resembling an old fashioned country house, comfortably furnished and tastefully decorated, its wall hung with portraits of statesmen and with paintings, etchings, and engravings of picturesque and historic scenes. To Servia, Roumania, and Montenegro belongs the largest and most ornate of the national pavilions, with features adopted from the public buildings of all the three, and with strong traces of Russian treatment. The Italian edifice is of classic architecture, a simple structure but handsome in its simplicity, and mainly used for purposes of recreation, for music, dancing, and other pastimes in which Italians delight.
 - In this connection may be mentioned Festival hall, at the western extremity of the grounds, intended for amusements and public gatherings, and with recreation grounds adjacent. It is a rectangular building, with spacious arches and stairways, flat-roofed and surmounted by a glass-covered superstructure. On the main floor is an assembly hall which, with its surrounding galleries, affords seating capacity for 6,000 persons, the stage being 60 feet wide and flanked with tiers of boxes. Elsewhere are the offices of the management, with accommodation for the concessionaire and for the Midwinter Fair guards. Here concerts and other entertainments are given, and by Sousa's, the Iowa, and Exposition bands are open air concerts, the latter held during inclement weather in the Manufactures or Horticultural buildings. Here also it was at first intended to hold the sessions of the various congresses assembled in the city of San Francisco, the subjects considered including politics, economics, labor, finance, religion, temperance, education, literature, art, and music.
There is no Midway plaisance at the Fair; but scattered throughout the grounds are many things which remind us of this inviting feature in the Columbian Exposition, while of both expositions it may be said that to their supplementary attractions, their Midway spectacles, their music, fieworks, illuminations, and special days of festivity and celebration, was due at least two thirds of the total attendance. At the former there are outside exhibits which found no place at Jackson park, and among the most interesting is the mining camp of `49. It is a typical camp of the olden days, with its row of shanties on either side of the street, its stores, stage office, and hotel, its dance hall, saloon, and gambling resort, with all the adjuncts of pioneer civilization, but with neither church nor school-house. In these days there were no children in California, and as for divine service, it was conducted at times in the saloon, with results much more satisfactory, so far as the collection was concerned, than at the fashionable sanctuary of modern times. Other distinctive features are the Oregon hydraulic mining exhibit and the Colorado gold mine, the latter reproducing in miniature the workings of the Saratoga mine in Gilpin county.
The Chinatown of the Midwinter Fair includes a temple or Joss house, a theatre with its endless performances, a tea house where the beverage is served  with sweetmeats on square ebony tables, a court redolent with the oppressive odors of Chinese plants, and a number of booths where are gilded carvings, silk-embroidered robes, furniture inlaid with mother-of-pearl, and other manufactures of wondrous design and workmanship. On the opposite side of the central court, enclosed with a bamboo fence, is the Japanese village, with its theatre, acrobats, and dancing girls, its restaurant and tea house, its lake and waterfall and landscape garden. The street in Cairo is here, complete in every detail, though differing in many respects from the one in Jackson park and from the Rue du Caire at Paris in 1889. Within the principal entrance is a bazaar with more than three score booths aglow with jeweled weapons, filigree work, and fabrics warm of hue. Near by are a Turkish caf‚ with luxurious appointments, and a restaurant where are served all manner of dishes on tables placed beneath the trees. There are mosques with fantastic domes and stately spires and minarets; there are two theatres, in one of which are performed the sword dance and the repulsive danse du ventre; there are the familiar groups of Arabs, Egyptians, Soudanese, and Nubian; there are camels, donkeys, and donkey boys, and finally there is the wedding procession, resembling the one already described in these pages. In the Hawaiian village, in addition to the cyclorama of the volcano of Kilauea, as represented at the Columbian Exposition, are the throne and uniform of the late king of Hawaii, with the furniture and equipments of his palace, relics of by-gone days, and many forms of native manufacture. Islanders in white flannel suits and island lasses in gay apparel are chatting and sauntering around the plaza, and in front of primitive huts of plaited grass and ferns stalks the gigantic ox "Apalahama," astride of which is a woman with bifurcated skirt of spotted calico. Ceylon has a court and tea garden transplanted from the Chicago Fair, as was also the Dahomean settlement. In the Eskimo village is shown how the natives of Labrador, men, women, children, and dogs, live in their hyperborean clime in cone-shaped huts of snow, so far at least as the effect can be produced by liberal coatings of whitewash. In contrast with this is the Arizona village, whose denizens are skilled in simple forms of manufacture, as in the making of baskets from native grasses so closely woven as to hold water, and in the weaving of blankets on the most antiquated looms, yet rich in color and extremely durable. Their cabins are of mesa grass, with sloping roofs and long gourd chimneys in the shape of an inverted tripod. In another Indian village - that of Doctor White Cloud - are Sioux warriors and squaws, among them several who took part in the battle on the Rosebud, where Custer met his fate.
 - Europe is also represented in the Midway features of the Fair. There is a German village in which Heidelberg castle, with its store of ancient weapons, pictures, and furniture, looms above peaked and gable-roofed cottages nestling around its base. There are old-fashioned German shops; there are skittles and ten pins, with fun and frolic in every form, and there is the inn of "The Golden Bear," where he who is so inclined may enjoy his beer and pipe in company with the broad-girthed citizens of the Fatherland. Covering some two acres near the Manufactures building is the prater or park, with its shady avenues, fountains, and flowerbeds, a miniature reproduction of the site on which was held the Vienna Exposition of 1873. In the concert hall are performances conducted by the musical director of the imperial court of Austria, and on special nights are garden fetes and other entertainments. A further attraction is the plaintive music of the gypsy chorus in the Hungarian csara or inn, noted for its excellent wines and repasts.
On the route of the Scenic railway are shifting glimpses of scenery, the line passing through a natural cavern, the walls of which are illuminated with flashes of electric light in various colors. The Firth wheel is to the Midwinter what the Ferris wheel was to the Columbian Exposition, but on a smaller scale, and is claimed, with certain improvements in mechanical device. The foundation for the piers is formed of more than 700 tons of rock and cement, and the supports and bearings are capable of withstanding a much greater strain than any to which they are subjected. The wheel is 100 feet in diameter and 50 additional feet are gained by the height of the foundation and the natural elevation of the site. From the windows of the 16 cars, each holding ten persons, is a kaleidoscopic view of the Fair, and of surpassing beauty is the effect by night when buildings and grounds stand forth in tracery of fire.
In the illumination of the Fair the electric tower is the principal feature; for here is one of the most powerful search-lights in the world, its comet-like rays distinctly visible more than 50 miles at sea. Soon after nightfall the electric fountain begins to play; at a given signal the lamps are extinguished, and an instant later the flash of the search-light is turned on the gilded dome of the Administration building, which hangs like a ball of gold suspended in air, its apparent height increased by the darkness which enshrouds the structure beneath. Then in succession the rays are turned on the pinnacles, towers, and facades of each of the principal edifices, or sweeping the horizon, cast their sheen afar on the waters of the Pacific. Presently the arc and  incandescent lamps are relighted, accentuating as with meridian splendor the graceful proportions of the buildings grouped like enchanted palaces around the central court.
And here in her dazzling robes of light we will take our leave of the Sunset City, the City of Palms, the Midwinter Fair. While other international expositions have been the outcome of years of preparation at a cost running far into the millions, here was what may be termed an impromptu display of what California could do on the briefest notice and with the smallest possible means. Most creditable were the results achieved, and the more so that nothing better than county or local fairs had thus far been attempted. Moreover it was a season of financial straitness; there was no government, state, or other public aid, and by capitalists the project was at first declared to be neither practicable nor desirable. As to the benefits of the Fair, its educational and commercial benefits, its benefits as an advertising medium, an efficacious and dignified advertisement, inviting to the Pacific coast the class of immigration which it needs, as uniting all sections of the coast in fraternal cooperation, as bringing them into closer relations with foreign lands and with other portions of their own land, these are influences which cannot as yet be estimated. A quarter of a century hence, let us say, when at San Francisco or Portland a great international exposition shall be held amid one of the most cultured and prosperous communities in the world, men may look back to the gathering in Golden Gate park in this year of 1894 as the inauguration of an era such as never before was witnessed by the young and ambitious commonwealths of the further west.
Midwinter Fair Miscellany
In all respects save one the Midwinter Fair was a success, and that was from a financial point of view, though gate and other receipts were fully as large as had been expected. With the comparatively small amount subscribed in sums ranging from $1 to several thousands of dollars, the results accomplished were most remarkable, the entire cost of buildings, grounds, and operating and other expenses being less than that of the hall of Manufactures and Liberal Arts at the Columbian Exposition. The largest buildings were erected in a very few months, and others in a few weeks, a few days sufficing for the construction of the smaller edifices. The attendance suffered from business depression and inclement weather during a portion of the term; but all who visited the Fair were pleased, and those who came from afar were surprised at this exhibition of the manifold resources and industries of the Pacific coast, for the first time grouped in combination and on an adequate scale.
Festivities and celebrations were as numerous at the Midwinter as at the Columbian Exposition, nearly every day of its terms, Sundays of course excepted, being set apart for some state, county, nationality, or organization, or in honor of some historical event. In connection with the Fair was an emergency hospital, with physicians in attendance day and night, and an ambulance service fully equipped and always in readiness. The Midwinter Fair guard was enrolled as a special police force under military discipline, and organized by Colonel W. R. Shafter of the regular army.
Worthy of note among the incidents of the Midwinter Fair is the so-called "battle of roses," in which many counties participated, Alameda being especially prominent. A procession made the tour of the grounds, and there were floats covered with roses and carriages and horses decked with roses, all passing beneath arches wreathed with roses, erected at various points.
Among other Midway attractions not mentioned in the text is Boone's wild animal arena, where a lion standing in a chariot, with reins between his teeth, is drawn around the ring by a pair of tigers; a wolf is made to jump through a hoop, and goats, pigs, dogs, and cats are trained to their several tricks. In the Santa Barbara amphibion sea-lions and sea-otter are kept in a huge salt-water tank, whence they climb the steps and come floundering on the floor for the fish which their keeper offers. There is an ostrich farm or paddock in which it may be seen how a prominent industry of Southern Africa can be turned to advantage in California, where experiments have thus far proved unprofitable. Housed in a handsome pavilion is a group of St. Bernard dogs, with 35 noble specimens from the Waldenberg kennels near Basle, one of them valued at $20,000. In the Electric theatre is shown how electricity can be used for scenic effects. A weird exhibition is the Inferno, entered between the jaws of a dragon's head, with its burning lakes, its bottomless pits, and other suggestions of an imaginary place of torment. In the Moorish mystic maze the visitor enters a series of narrow corridors walled with mirrors so placed as to produce countless reflections of himself and to transform an individual into a ghostly multitude. The effect is bewildering as well as ludicrous; for once within there is no apparent outlet, and nothing to be seen except for the figure of a woman illusive as a desert mirage. Other attractions are the "haunted swing" and a clever illusion in "Egyptian hall," where a marble statue of Pharaoh's daughter, perfectly modeled and draped, is gradually transformed into a living woman, who descending from her pedestal gives assurance to the audience that she is alive.