The Book of the Fair,
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Chapter the Sixth: From the Dedication to the Opening - The Naval Review
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[86] - The three October days of the dedication ceremonies, from the 20th to the 22nd of that month, were days that will long be remembered in the annals of the Garden city, the business portions of which were almost concealed by their wealth of decorations. Never before had there here been witnessed a spectacle, or rather a series of spectacles, at once so dignified, brilliant, and impressive, and never had been gathered from our own and foreign lands so great an assemblage of eminent men. To thousands invitations had been extended, and by nearly all accepted, including among other the president of the United States and his cabinet, - the former detained by domestic affliction, - the vice-president, ex-presidents Hayes and Cleveland, the judges of the supreme court, the members of congress, the governors of states and territories, the foreign diplomatic corps, the envoys of foreign powers, army and navy officers, and the foremost representatives of commerce and industry, of science, art, and education from every land.

A gray autumnal sky ushered in the morn of the 20th, when half a million of Chicago's citizens filled the streets at every point of vantage from which could be witnessed a parade of civic, fraternal, and other organizations, 80,000 strong, passing in review before the vice-president of the United States. At noon, when the streets were cleared without disorder, all the invited guests, except those who took part in the procession, were assembled on the main stand, where a few minutes later were heard the sweet, fresh voices of children singing the national anthem. Then came a brief interval of silence, as from his box, seated side by side with the nation's vicegerent, the director-general of the Exposition gave forth a signal that the great civic army was approaching. Following a squadron of mounted police came a band playing "La Belle Chicago," a [87] melody composed for the occasion, and next the band of the Mexican republic, permitted, at the request of President Diaz, than whom no foreign potentate has displayed a deeper interest in the World's Fair, to participate in its initial ceremonies. Then as chief marshal rode General Miles, in front of his numerous staff, attired in civilian garb, and riding the sorrel charger which has shared with him the hardships of many an Indian campaign. Next came in view the head of the first grand division, composed of the city officials and the members of the city council, escorted by six platoons of the Chicago hussars, mounted on coal-black steeds, and with a rear-guard of grand army men and sailors, all veterans of the civil war.

At the head of the second division, preceded by the Pullman band, came the Italian societies, carrying the banners of their native or adopted land, and after them the legion of Garibaldi, followed by other military companies, mounted and on foot. Then, drawn by ten horses, was a huge canvas in the form of a float, representing a rock-bound coast, and beyond it the Santa Maria tossing amid the waves, her sailors dressed in the garb of the Columbian era. Next appeared the governors of states, headed by those of Delaware and Pennsylvania, and in the carriage of the latter General Snowdon, by whom were suppressed the Homestead riots. Much cheering greeted the advent of Governor Bulkeley and his Connecticut footguards, attired in the uniform of French grenadiers in the days of Louis XVI, when first the corps was organized. With still louder cheering were saluted Governor Russell, the boy ruler, as he is termed, of the Bay state, and Governor Flower of the Empire state, the acclamations lasting until both were well out of sight. No less hearty was the welcome accorded to the governors of Ohio, Iowa, and other states, but above all to the governor of Illinois, who rode without staff or escort, merely raising his hat as he passed the reviewing stand.

After the procession of governors came what was to the more thoughtful among the multitude one of the most interesting features of the parade. Preceded by their own band, headed by their principal, and dressed in neat, new uniforms were several companies of Indian students from the industrial school at Carlisle in Pennsylvania. The leading company carried slates and school-books; the second, type galleys; the third, implements or products of agriculture, and the rest, such specimens or tools as represented their various pursuits. Halting in front of the grand stand, they performed a series of military evolutions with a rapidity and precision which won the applause of the observers. But how attractive soever this spectacle, it evoked as [88] much of sadness as of interest, for here in this handful of boys, some of them the sole survivors of nations now swept from the earth, were represented the few who had availed themselves of this boon of education which the government extends to the offspring of its meanest citizens.

The order of Foresters formed the next division, the Illinois lodges being represented, with many from states adjoining. Other features of the procession were the Royal Orangemen, the members of athletic clubs in their gray gymnasium suits, followed by Highlanders, Norsemen, Danes, and Scandinavians in civil or military garb. The appearance of the sons of veterans was the signal for a discharge of miniature cannon, loaded with fire-crackers, and shot from a mammoth float, built in imitation of the Monitor, and manned by veterans of the Farragut post. There were cadets in blue and gray uniforms; there were the Riverview guards in zouave uniforms; there were colored troops, with a colored lodge of the knights of Pythias, and there were a thousand well-drilled youths from high schools, grammar schools, and training schools. Nor should we forget the Catholic division, which in number exceeded all the rest, including Catholic foresters and knights, members of the Catholic Benevolent league and of the ancient order of Hibernians, with thousands of others from almost every class and nation in the world.

Though somewhat ponderous, and composed of such heterogeneous elements as had never before been grouped in the ranks of a parade, it was an interesting procession, one compared with which a military march is of small significance. Here was the initial celebration of the greatest of all human triumphs, the triumphs of peace, of arts and industries, greater than were ever achieved by the armies of a Caesar or a Scipio. Here were assembled people of all nationalities, ages, and conditions in life, from grizzled veterans of the civil war, bearing aloft their country's banner, to rosy-cheeked boys and girls, waving their miniature flags. Here in the same line marched the Teuton and Sclav, the Orangeman and Catholic, the African negro and the American Indian. Foes by heredity became as brothers, and under the colors of the great republic marched scores of thousands of foreign birth, whose forefathers had met on many a bloody field. The hatreds of jealousies of olden days were laid aside; for now all were Americans, native, naturalized, or by sympathy, all were freemen, and a proud of their citizenship as of their country.

Before the sunrise on the 21st the inhabitants of Chicago were awakened by the deep-voiced intonation of artillery, announcing the anniversary of the day when, four centuries ago, the great discoverer set foot on the shore of this western wilderness. An hour later a million of people were in the streets, two-thirds of whom were journeying toward the place of the Fair, or to the park adjacent, where was to be held such a military parade as was never witnessed on the shores of Michigan. By noon at least a quarter of a million souls were gathered within the Exposition grounds, and then it was that their extent was for the first time fairly tested. So far from any symptom of crowding or inconvenience, it appeared rather as a holiday gathering and with ample room to spare. On entering the gates, the first question asked by visitors, one of another, was: "Where is the crowd?" But, as one of those aptly remarked, "You could put a million of people here before the place would have a crowded look." Thongs there were at times on the broad avenues and [89] esplanades, the wide bridges and spacious promenades; but at no hour of the day was there jostling or other discomfort, and never for an instant was there anything resembling a blockade. The Columbian guards, stationed here and there for the preservation of order, found themselves with nothing to do; for there was no disorder. Around some point where a landscape vista or a gem of constructive art arrested the attention, a crowd might linger for a moment; but then a polite remonstrance was sufficient, and this uttered in such tones that the most captious could not take offense.

It was one of those bright October days, perhaps the most perfect weather witnessed in the city by the lake, and brightly shone the temples of the Fair in the mellow autumn sunlight, amid flutter of streamers and pennants from flagstaff, dome, and turret. The waterways were smooth and mirror-like, the greensward that arrayed their banks in robes of emerald contrasting with the sombre hues of the autumnal foliage. For the occasion the great hall of Manufactures had been converted into a vast auditorium, no pillar obstructing the view amid all its covered acres. The decorations were in excellent taste, and among them none attracted more attention than the banner of the Columbian Exposition, here for the first time displayed. In shape it was triangular, its field divided into blue and white, the colors of the lake and of the Exposition buildings. Its sides were fringed with green, gold, and buff, and near the staff, encircled by a laurel wreath, were four Cs wrought in Gothic capitals, the initials of the words Cyclos, Christopher, Columbus, and Chicago, the number o f Cs representing the four hundredth anniversary of the event which the Fair commemorates.

Some two hours after noon the head of the procession, preceded by an escort of cavalry, entered the Exposition grounds. When, side by side, the vice-president of the United States and the president of the Columbian commission passed down the centre aisle, a cheer broke forth from a hundred thousand persons, such as perhaps had not been heard since Lincoln reviewed at Gettysburg the army of the Potomac. An instant later the director-general touched an electric signal, and as with one grand burst of orchestral melody the opening strains of the Columbian march, swelled by a chorus of five thousand voices, rolled through the great auditorium, a hush fell on the multitude, stricken with amaze as though the huge dome had been shaken by the crash of thunder. A momentary silence greeted the final notes, silence even more impressive than the music itself; and then came a tumult of applause, stilled only by the outstretched hands of Bishop Fowler, by whom were offered the opening prayer and thanksgiving; but except for the orchestra and choruses, little that was said or sung on this occasion could be heard beyond a radius of a few hundred feet.

Taking advantage of the stillness that followed the conclusion of prayer, the director-general stepped forward and delivered the introductory address, then turned to Mayor Washburne, by whom were tendered to the assembled guests the city's welcome and hospitalities. Next on the programme was the reading of selected verses of the Commemoration ode, written by Miss Harriet Monroe, and read by Mrs. Sarah C. Le Moyne, a portion being set to music and rendered by the orchestra and chorus.

By the chief of construction were introduced to the president of the Columbian Exposition its artificers, to each of whom was handed a medal, the orchestra meanwhile rendering Mendelssohn's ode to "The Sons of Art." Then stepped forward the president of the Board of Lady Managers, by whom was explained their work, - the organization of women for mutual aid, the widening sphere of woman's usefulness, and the methods whereby that sphere may be enlarged.

By the president of the Exposition the buildings were transferred to T. W. Palmer, president of the National Commission, who, turning to Vice-president Morton, at the conclusion of his address, asked that he dedicate the buildings and grounds in the name of the government of the United States. After the orchestra had rendered the hallelujah chorus of the "Messiah," the dedicatory oration was delivered by Henry Watterson. Then was sung "The Star Spangled Banner," after which the Columbian oration was delivered by Chauncey M. Depew. The ceremonies concluded with prayer by Cardinal Gibbons, the singing of Beethoven's "In Praise of God," and the benediction pronounced by the Reverend H. C. McCook. While the solemn words of blessing still lingered on the ear, a momentary hush was broken by the crash of artillery, firing the national salute, and as the gray October twilight deepened into dusk, the audience slowly withdrew from a scene such as [90] few among them had beheld, as few again shall behold. The following day was given to the dedication of such of the state buildings as were completed, or in condition to permit the ceremony, and after a welcome Sabbath of rest, the people of Chicago returned to their usual avocations.

By foreign commissioners who had taken part in international exhibitions, it was declared, some weeks prior to the 1st of May, that to open on that date would not be possible. There were too many unfinished buildings, walls unplastered, leaky roofs, and the accumulation of debris. Moreover, on account of heavy snow-falls, followed by rain and thaw, the work of installing exhibits was delayed until long after the appointed time, and more than once suspended, those which were already unpacked being covered with tarpaulins, and thus preserved from injury. Such was the severity of the winter that the end of March drew near before this portion of the work could be thoroughly taken in hand. For this purpose a special department was organized and equipped, one capable of handling several hundred carloads a day, and with many miles of track connecting the buildings with railroad termini. From dawn till dusk, and from nightfall almost until daybreak, the trains were running goods intended for the Fair receiving the preference in right of way. Express lines were utilized, one of them forwarding by the first train of flat cars ever despatched by express a consignment of British works of art.

If, as the opening day drew near, few of the departments were in presentable shape; if even for some time after the opening men spoke of the Exposition as it would be, and not as it was, it was mainly due to the tardiness of certain exhibitors, many of whom would not even pay for the additional labor needed to install their wares. By the chiefs of departments and their employees all that men could do was done, and had they been seconded by others they would have come nearer to fulfilling their expectations. From the hall of Manufactures and Liberal Arts came word that the building was practically completed and installation well advanced. In the Agricultural building a number of states and foreign powers were at work on their pavilions, with others ready to commence. In the Electricity building many of the booths were either completed or nearing completion, with hundreds of men to remain at work for each of the remaining days, and, if need be, each of the remaining nights. In the hall of Mines and Mining exhibits were being rapidly delivered at the main entrance, and thence lifted by cranes and carried on trucks to their allotted space.

[91] - In the Transportation department it had been found necessary to increase the exhibiting space until, including special buildings, it covered nearly twenty acres. The roof had been seriously damaged by snow and ice, so that it must almost be recovered, thus delaying the work of installation. This accomplished, every effort was being made to complete the preparations, a great transfer table being used for the handling of locomotives and passenger cars. In the Horticultural hall exhibits were rapidly being placed in position, and the space of those who could not be ready in time was transferred to other applicants. And so with the remaining departments, where, as one of their chiefs remarked, "all objectionable features would disappear and all uncompleted groups be finished as speedily as possible. In their stead would come forth forms, lines, curves, combinations, and harmonies, so bewildering and enchanting as to electrify the world."

By those who visited the grounds a few days before the opening could best be realized the magnitude of the now completed task. There was then at work an army of 40,000 or 50,000 men, under such discipline that all seemed to move with the precision of a military parade. Some were busied in cleaning the roads, in leveling roadways, and removing debris; others in gardening, and still others in finishing staff decorations or putting the final touches on buildings, with thousands of painters and carpenters at work and with many additional thousands passing to and fro, on errands, on business, or acting as escort to visitors. Most striking of all was the endless procession of wagons and drays, approaching the grounds from several directions in lines a quarter of a mile in length; then, under the direction of the Columbian guards, falling into other lines already within the park, and proceeding on their way with loads of materials and exhibits. In the opposite direction passed a similar line of empty vehicles, returning for new loads to the railroad depots. Inside the buildings a second army was at work, unpacking and installing exhibits, some by hand and some that must be lifted by derricks and wheeled on cars into place.

Thus, if not completed by the 1st of May, the Columbian Exposition was, in proportion to its scope and size, as far advanced as some others of the great world's fairs. Never, since the London Exhibition of 1851, and seldom even at our state and county fairs was the display in perfect readiness at the appointed time. To the allotments of space some exceptions were taken, but this was inseparable from the task of housing within certain limits unlimited collections.

And now after more than two years of preparation, after so much had been said and written concerning the great display, so much that was true, so much that was untrue, its gates were about to be thrown open, that all the world might judge for itself how well or ill the work had been accomplished.

As part of the ceremonies connected with the Columbian Exposition, and before proceeding further with the annals of the Fair, brief space may here be given to the naval review held in New York harbor on the 27th of April, for none of the president's invitations met with more cordial response than the one extended to foreign powers "to send ships of war to join the United States navy in rendezvous at Hampton roads and proceed thence to the review." Here were assembled, as on international fleet, thirty-five vessels of war representing the best and most interesting naval specimens of Old and New World architecture, from the caravels of Columbus to the swiftest and most powerful of steel-plated cruisers. Other reviews there have been on a larger scale, as at Spithead in the jubilee year of England's queen; but never before had the squadrons of England and France, of Russia and Germany, of Italy and Spain, in line with those of other empires and monarchies, passed in parade before a president of the United States.

On the 25th of April the fleet arrived in successive divisions in the lower inlet of New York harbor, [93] and was brought to its anchorage ground in the upper bay by the British vice-admiral, whose flagship, the cruiser Blake, led the van of the starboard division. Next morning two guns from the American flagship Philadelphia proclaimed the signal for opening the ceremonies. Two columns were formed in the Narrows, between which passed the Dolphin, the vessel of the president, and the caravels of Columbus. To foreign contingents was assigned the New York side of the river, where was the starboard division of the fleer, commanded by the British vice-admiral Sir John Hopkins, whose squadron consisted of the flagship Blake and her three consorts, all powerful ships, black-hulled and grim of aspect. Then came the Russian vessels, commanded by Admiral Koznakoff, and followed, in the order named, by those of France, Italy, Spain, and Brazil. In the larboard or port division, anchored off the New Jersey shore, a dozen men-of-war gave assurance that at length the Washington government has at least the nucleus of a navy. In the van of this section was the Philadelphia, the flagship of Rear-admiral Gherardi, followed by a long array of steel-armored cruisers, one of them named after the city of the Fair. Somewhat strangely their unbroken line of white contrasted with the sombre aspect of the English and Russian columns. The Argentine republics were each represented by a single vessel, and in the entire fleet there were few better models of naval architecture than the German cruiser Kaiserin Augusta, which, with her consort and the American ship Miantonomoh, formed the rear of the larboard division.

In this peaceful pageant, and in the one which to follow, there was much to commend itself to the more thoughtful observer; for here were assembled in perfect harmony, and merely in honor of the occasion, the war vessels of all the great naval powers, a single squadron of which could, before nightfall, have laid waste the city of New York.

Next day companies of sailors and marines, landing from the fleet, were received by the first brigade of the national guard, and a parade followed. At the head rode the governor of New York, in company with General Horace Porter, followed in carriages by officers from the several squadrons, escorted by officers of the American navy. Then in four brigades came the first division, in which were detachments from all the United [94] States war-vessels. The array was much commended for its appearance and precision, the marines in their neat blue uniforms marching past in ranks as solid as the sections of a wall. The second division was composed of foreign contingents, in front a column of British sailors, followed by companies of marines, the artillery in dark blue uniforms, faced with crimson trimmings, and the infantry in scarlet tunics and snow-white helmets, the latter ranking among the best drilled corps in the service. The Russians followed, with Grand Duke Alexander on their left, a choice body of men, of fine physique and sailor-like aspect. Next were the Italians, and those from the Argentine cruiser, and after them the Hollanders, the quaint, old-fashioned head-dress of their leading company contrasting strangely with the rest. Then a detachment of German sailors passed the reviewing stand in the so-called goose-leg step of the landwehr. Behind them was a battalion of French marines, in heavy marching order, and last of all a colored regiment of Brazilians. In rear of the second division were the naval reserves of New York and Massachusetts, with Gatling guns and rifled cannon.

Turn again from the queen city of the ocean to the queen city of the lakes, where the day that followed the naval parade was also one of military and civic display. On this, the second day before the opening of the Fair, three out of the many arrivals in Chicago were the signal for such greetings of welcome as her citizens never fail to accord to those whom they delight to honor. These were the duke of Veragua, the president of the United States, and the liberty bell. In the later morning hours the lineal descendant of the great discoverer, attended by his suite, with his wife, his son and heir, Cristobal Colon & Aguilera, and others of his family and kin, was received at the railway station by the Exposition authorities and conducted with due ceremony to the quarters prepared for his entertainment.

A few minutes after noon President Cleveland and party were met by a committee of welcome, and with the more demonstrative welcome of an assemblage gathered to do honor not only to the chief executive of the nation, but to the citizen and the man. So cordial was his greeting that from the steps of his carriage to the [96] steps of his hotel he perforce remained with head uncovered, in response to the salutations of the multitude. With no less enthusiasm was received the liberty bell, which, since from the tower of Liberty hall were proclaimed its notes of freedom, had only twice before been removed - to escape destruction at the hands of the British and for display at the New Orleans Centenary Exposition. After a circuitous and triumphal journey through Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois, this much revered relic of revolutionary days was drawn in procession by thirteen coal-black horses to its temporary home in the rotunda of the Pennsylvania building.

The Monday following was the 1st of May, the date appointed for the Opening of the World's Columbian Exposition. The ceremonies were of the simplest, and may here be described with a brevity of phrase befitting the occasion. Before noon a quarter of a million of people were gathered within the grounds, most of them around the Administration building, in front of which the exercises were to be held. Among the first of the invited quests to take their places on the grand stand were the foreign representatives, all in uniform resplendent with gold and lace, among which contrasted prominently with the rest of the black silk robes with white trimmings in which the Koreans were attired. A little later came the Vice-president, and after him a number of British officers and Fair officials. Presently the tuning of instruments by the orchestra intimated the approach of the presidential party, the applause which greeted their arrival being extended with no less enthusiasm to the descendant of Columbus, with his family and train, to whom places were assigned on the right of the nation's representative.

At a signal from the orchestra leader, Thomas, came the music of the Columbian march, the crash of its overture merging into a majestic hymn, and the hymn into an anthem, swelling at the close into the thunder tones of fortissimo. Prayer followed by Doctor Milburn, and as his eyeless sockets were turned heavenward in supplication all stood with uncovered heads. Next was read by Miss Jessie Couthoui, attired somewhat in the fashion of ancient Castile, and with head-dress of Spanish lace entwined with the colors of Aragon, a poem entitled "The Prophecy," composed for the occasion, and followed by Wagner's overture to Rienzi. Two speeches only were delivered, the director-general reviewing the history of the Fair, and, as he concluded, inviting the president to set in motion the machinery of the Exposition, with motive and lighting power sufficient for all this vast display of industrial processes.

Stepping to the front of the platform, as soon as the acclaim which greeted his presence would permit, the president delivered an address of which not the least commendable feature was its brevity. He concluded with the following words: "Let us hold fast to the meaning which underlies this ceremony, and let us not lose the impressiveness of this moment. As by a touch the machinery that gives life to this vast Exposition is [97] now set in motion, so at the same instant let our hopes and aspirations awaken forces which in all time to come shall influence the welfare, the dignity, and the freedom of mankind." As the final words were spoken, his hand rested for a moment over the spot where, amid the drapery of the national colors lay a golden key and a small ivory knob. Then with a gentle pressure on the button, all the ponderous machinery of the Fair was set in motion as at the touch of a magician's wand. The fountains and sculptured groups of the central court shot forth their spray of silver; side by side with the colors of the United States was unfurled the banner of the Spanish admiralty, and the strains of the national anthem, rising at times above roar of acclaim and salute announced to the world the opening of its Columbian Exposition.

Of the general features of the Exposition, of it manifold attractions and its few shortcomings, of its grounds and buildings, its artists and artificers, with the story of its evolution, its construction, and management, enough has been said in these the introductory chapters of my work. Be it now my task to describe, so far as pen and picture may, each of its departments and subdivisions, its groups and classes, together with the homes in which they were housed. This I shall endeavor to present without prolixity of detail, without elaboration of technical and tedious description, and in the briefest of phrase that consists with the magnitude of my theme.

World's Fair Miscellany

Certain it is said that if advertising and discussion assure success, the great show cannot prove a failure; for never before was an international performance so talked about and written about by the thousands who entered the unfinished buildings during the dedication services, and in the months that still intervened before the opening day. With the scaffolding not yet removed, and an army of workmen toiling day and night at their task, it was felt that never before had American genius been so worthily presented. It was not the extended proportions of the site, nor that on this site were being reared the largest structures in the world; it was rather the beauty of combination, the harmony of scenic, artistic, and architectural effect that impressed the beholder. Never before had been seen such universality of scope and design; for this was no local or sectional enterprise, one neither of the west nor east, but one in which were represented every quarter of the republic, every nation of Europe, of the Orient, and of antipodean regions, all contributing of the best which human art and ingenuity have thus far given to the world.

On the evening of the day that witnessed the dedication services, were held at the Auditorium hotel, in the presence of some three thousand invited guests, the inaugural ceremonies of the World's Congress Auxiliary. On the right of the chairman, Charles C. Bonney, president of the Auxiliary, was Rutherford B. Hayes, ex-president of the United States; on his left Mrs. Potter Palmer, president of the Woman's branch, and Archbishop Ireland. Among those on the platform were William R. Hayes and J. H. Barrows, seated next to the ex-president, and near them, Cardinal Gibbons, Bishop Fowler, and the postmaster-general; there were also several eminent divines, professors, and professional men, with governors of states, World's Fair commissioners, and other prominent men and women. After the rendering of the festival overture, followed with prayer by Doctor Barrows, a few words of welcome were spoken by the chairman and by the president of the Woman's branch; then by Mrs. Charles Henrotin, its vice-president, was delivered a brief salutation in honor of Queen Isabella. The oration of Archbishop Ireland followed, and to his eloquent address followed and to his eloquent address all listened with wrapt attention. The singing of "America" by the entire audience, and the benediction by Doctor Harper, of the University of Chicago, concluded the services.

At the review in Washington park on the 21st there were more than 10,000 troops of all arms and at least 150,000 spectators. Only regulars and national guardsmen were in line except for the Cleveland Grays, whose earkskin shakos and handsome uniforms, with their perfect marching formed a prominent feature in the parade. In their ranks were not a few of the wealthiest of Cleveland's citizens, among others a man worth $10,000,000, probably the richest private soldier in the world.

Soon after nightfall, at a signal from the flash-light on the Manufactures building, a display of fireworks was held simultaneously, and with programmes almost identical in Washington, Garfield, and Lincoln parks, the spectacle being thus divided between different sections of the city to avoid overcrowding. In all there were probably 200,000 people present, the largest gathering being at Lincoln park, on the northern side of the city. The opening piece was a flight of a hundred balloons, from which were discharged in mid-air flights of rockets, their colors changing from silver to red, from red to green, and from green to gold. Most of the pieces were aerial, among them being one representing the American flag; but the set [98] pieces were most appreciated. One portrayed in fires of various hue the landing of Columbus; another the Santa Maria, the third the Pinta and Nina, faithfully depicting the quaint architecture of the galleons. "Chicago Welcomes the Nations" was a pleasing device; but the masterpiece of all was Niagra falls, represented by a framework of fire a hundred feet hight, and in most realistic fashion.

At the time when the milkmen were making their rounds, on the dark cold frosty morning of the 20th, thousands of people assembled in the neighborhood of the reviewing stand and there remained until the close of the procession. Only two hours and forty-five minutes were required by this army of 80,000 men to pass a given point, a feat, said generals Miles and Schofield, that broke all previous records, and one that was almost marvelous considering the time required for evolutions and other unavoidable delays.

Seated in either wing of one of the stands were 1,500 school children, with caps of red, white or blue, and so arranged as to represent the American flag. All of them carried banners, which they began to wave as the vice-president drew near, accompanied with singing and cheering. As his hat was raised in response to this salutation, another cheer arose, and still a third as again his silver gray head was uncovered in answer to their greeting.

No injuries occurred in the crush of October 20th, except for the fainting of a few women caused by the surging of the crowd as the vice-president entered the stand. For a time this mass of humanity waved to and fro like a field of grain before the wind; but a line of policemen forming on the street set their backs against the throng, and bracing their heels on the cobblestones, held them back by main force. Inspector Lewis said it was the largest crowd he had ever seen, and yet one easy to handle, for all save the roughs were disposed to assist the officers, who controlled the multitude without recourse to violence, though some were ejected in a fashion more expeditious than graceful.

On the 19th of October the Columbian anniversary was celebrated in the schools, not only of Chicago but of the United States, by exercises of which a programme had been prepared by the Nation Association of superintendents. There were essays, addresses, reading, declamations, and patriotic songs, and among the Catholic schools of Chicago a children's parade reviewed by Archbishop Feehan. In many of the assembly rooms was read an appropriate address styled "The Meaning of the Four Centuries," and also an ode by Edna Dean Proctor, entitled "Columbia's Banner."

On the evening of the 19th a reception, followed by a banquet and ball, was given by the citizens of Chicago, at the Auditorium hotel, in honor of vice-president Morton, visiting officials, the representatives of foreign powers, army and navy officers, and other persons of note. At the ball there were several thousand invited guests, and by envoys and embassadors it was pronounced to be on a par with the grandest of European court balls. As few others among the assemblage had ever been present at a court ball, this was a safe remark, although as true as diplomatic.

On the evening of the 20th a military reception and ball were held at the First Regiment armory, Henry L. Turner acting as host. In addition to the vice-president and his party, I find among the names of the more distinguished guests, those of sixteen governors, generals and colonels by the score, with here and there a judge or senator, and several of the more prominent officials of the Exposition. At the Fellowship club, on the same night, a dinner was given to the most eminent among the many thousands of visitors assembled to witness or take part in the dedication ceremonies and in the personnel of the company was betokened, as never before, the universal interest displayed in the great World's Fair.

During the dedication ceremonies no fees were charged; but admission to the grounds was only by invitation or complimentary ticket; to admit the general public would have imperilled the safety of invited guests. In the hall of Manufactures and Liberal Arts seats were provided for about 75,000 people, with 2,500 reserved for the more distinguished personages, and 15,000 for those specially invited. All others were permitted to choose their seats in the order of arrival.

In some other cities the anniversary was celebrated with parades, exercises, or other demonstrations, each city and town selecting for itself the kind of celebration that suited its taste. In New York it was held on October 12th, and took the form of a military pageant, 50,000 men passing the reviewing stand in Madison Square, with a million or more of spectators lining the sidewalks of Broadway and Fifth Avenue. At night there was a civic procession to Central park, where was unveiled the statue of Columbus presented by Italy to the United States. That the New York celebration was held on the 12th was due to the fact that, according to the Julian calendar, this was the day of the month on which the great discovery was made. If the same event had occurred after the adoption of the Gregorian calendar, the date would have been the 21st of October, or the one on which the occasion was generally observed. At Brooklyn there was a civic and military procession, a feature of which was a division composed of 10,000 school boys, marching with cadenced step and with the precision of veterans. At Boston the ringing of church bells and firing of national salutes at break of day was followed by suitable exercises, by the unveiling of a statue of Columbus on the cathedral grounds, and by a parade. At Philadelphia the exercises were held at the University of Pennsylvania. At Cincinnati there was a procession of some 30,000 civilians, and on the river a realistic imitation of the voyage and landing of Columbus from vessels built after the fashion of his caravels.

On the day before the departure of the fleet from Hampton roads, the caravels, escorted by Spanish war vessels sailed for New York, where they arrived and were hauled to their station on the night of the 24th, after being driven by stress of weather into Chesapeake bay. Thus were the Santa Maria, Pinta, and Nina, spared the ignominy of being towed like floating baby-carriages, in company with these mammoth squadrons and astern of some naval leviathan, into the river which Verazzano discovered less than a score of years after the death of Columbus. Thus also was avoided a ludicrous aspect in the arrival and initial manoeuvres of the fleet.

The forenoon of the 27th was the time appointed for the naval review; but on account of rain this was postponed for two or three hours by order of President Cleveland. His reasons were that a fair afternoon was predicted by the Signal Service bureau and that the secretary of the navy, by whom he would be accompanied, was in such feeble health that exposure meant risk of life.

By all it was conceded that apart from the drawbacks mentioned, both review and parade were well managed. At the former the passage was kept clear by tugs and torpedo boats, in conformity with the special powers conferred by congress. Yet such were the tact and discretion displayed by those in command, that none had cause for complaint.

On board the thirty-five vessels of the Columbian fleet there were more than 10,000 officers, seamen and marines, the Russian flagship, Dimitri Donskoi, having the largest company, 570 in number, and next, the British cruiser Blake. The latter was, as I have said, the most powerful ship in the fleet; but among those of the United States, there were splendid specimens of naval power and naval architecture. The Argentinian vessel Neuve de Julio was accredited with the highest rate of speed, reaching 22.7 knots an hour. Next were the Blake, with 22 knots, the Kaiserin Augusta, with 20.7, and the Spanish ship Reina Regente with 20.6. Among the United States contingent there were several which approximated and one or two that exceeded a speed of 20 knots under a forced blast.

Of the many interesting features of the land parade, there were none that excited more curiosity than the pet of the Tartar's crew, marching with solemn gait at the head of the British column - a goat bedecked with a mantle of gold-laced scarlet silk.

A banquet at the New York Chamber of commerce closed a series of entertainments and ceremonies lasting for the greater part of a week.

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